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The Royal Colonies

Notes on the Original 13 American Colonies
by

Dacia Guffey

on 31 August 2015

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Transcript of The Royal Colonies

New England's geography was unsuitable for large plantations or cash crops
some subsistence farming
main crop corn
Grand Banks region of the Atlantic becomes important for fishing and whaling
Dense forests = lumber is an important industry
Introduction
European nations explored the Americas and began establishing colonies along the mid-Atlantic coast of North America. Eventually, these colonies would declare their independence from England and become a new nation: the United States of America.
Pennsylvania
The 13
From Maine to Georgia
Original
Colonies:
Middle
NEW YORK
hi olivia.
hi olivia.
Maryland
Virginia
North Carolina
South Carolina
Georgia
-
Massachusetts Bay Colony
Plymouth
Colony
There was a close relationship between the government and the Puritan church.
government leaders believed they were God's elect
all adult males who attended the Puritan church could vote
made laws criminalizing sins like drunkenness, swearing, theft, or even laziness.
courts also intervened in family life - enforcing obedience in children, and requiring marriage counseling for quarreling spouses
Winthrop wanted to create a
"City on a Hill"
Didn't think the Church of England could be fixed from within
thought it was too much like the Catholic Church
decided to make their own church
called
separatists
Plymouth Colony becomes the second permanent English colony founded in North America
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
Later combined with Massachusetts Bay to form Massachusetts
The Fundamental Orders of Connecticut
were adopted January 14, 1639.
describe the government set up by the Connecticut River towns
considered by some as the first written Constitution in the US
Founded in 1639 by
Thomas Hooker
Originally known as the River Colony, it was organized
on March 3, 1636 as a settlement for a Puritan congregation. After early struggles with the Dutch, the English had permanently gained control of the colony in the year 1636.
Connecticut
The settlers took up fishing because there was not much good soil for farming
Massachusetts and New Hampshire often had conflicts over who claimed territory.
New Hampshire was first settled near Portsmouth by a group of fishermen from England under the leadership of
David Thompson
in 1623.
Founded in 1681 by
William Penn
Wanted to create a colony with religious freedom to protect Quakers from persecution
Benjamin Franklin was a citizen of this state
second colony to ratify Constitution
Rhode Island
Founded in
1647 by
Roger Williams and
Anne Hutchinson
Maryland soon became one of the few predominantly Catholic regions among the English colonies in North America. Maryland was also one of the key destinations where the government sent tens of thousands of English convicts.
Dutch had a lot of violent conflicts with local indian tribes, usually connected to dishonest traders.
Unlike the French, Spanish, and Puritan English, the Dutch came to trade or farm.
made virtually no missionary effort to convert the Indians.
In 1609, the region was first explored by
Henry Hudson
, an English captain in the service of the Dutch East India Company.
was on a voyage to try and discover a northern water passage to India
A surprise attack with overwhelming force allowed the English to conquer New Netherland in 1664.
The colony and city were both renamed New York after its new proprietor, James II of England, who was the Duke of York at the time
Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the Governor of Virginia from 1610 until 1618, was given the royal charter to the land.
At that time the area was considered to be part of the Virginia colony.
After James II removed the Dutch by force in 1664, the area became part of his royal charter until 1682 when he leased the land to William Penn who wanted sea access for his Pennsylvania colony.
The Dutch thought they also had a claim, based on the 1609 explorations of Henry Hudson.
Dutch settlers sponsored by the Dutch West India Company were the first Europeans to actually occupy the land.
Swedish and Finnish settlers under the New Sweden Company also settled the
region.
Delaware
Maryland was named after King Charles' wife, Queen Mary.
Maryland, like other colonies, used the
headright system
to encourage people to bring in new settlers.
The colony was created as a refuge for persecuted English Catholics.
New Hampshire
Europeans began exploring the area, starting with John Cabot in 1498.
In 1608 John Smith entered Chesapeake Bay and explored it extensively.
George Calvert, the Baron of Baltimore, applied to King Charles I for a royal charter for what was to become the Province of Maryland. After Calvert died in April 1632, the charter for "Maryland Colony" passed to his son, Cecilius Calvert.
By 1664, the British had claimed the entire region and had driven the Dutch out. New Netherland was renamed New Jersey. King Charles gave the land between the Hudson and Delaware River (New Jersey) to two of his friends, Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey
... small
First colonized by Dutch settlers around 1613
The Puritans were united in their mission to set the right example to the rest of the world of godly living.
"For this end, we must be knit together, in this work, as one man....We must uphold [each other] in all meekness, gentleness, patience and liberality. We must delight in each other; make others’ conditions our own; rejoice together, mourn together, labor and suffer together....
...We shall find that the God of Israel is among us, when ten of us shall be able to resist a thousand of our enemies; when He shall make us a praise and glory that men shall say of succeeding plantations, "may the Lord make it like that of New England." For we must consider that we shall be as a
city upon a hill
. The eyes of all people are upon us."
~ John Winthrop, sermon "A Model of Christian Charity"
Puritans did not create a democracy, but colonists had more political power than in England.
In 1638, the town of
Exeter
was founded by
John Wheelwright
Colonies
Attracted people to the area by offering land and guaranteeing religious freedom.
Royal Colonies
royal colonies were under the direct control of the King
the King usually appointed a Royal Governor
usually also lead by an assembly of officials elected by the colonists
8 of the 13 original colonies were royal colonies
Colonies
The Delaware River region was claimed by the English based on the explorations of John Cabot in 1497, Captain John Smith and others.
Delaware did not become a separate colony until after the Revolution began in 1776.
Colonies
One of John Smith's early maps of the region.
Headright System
grant of land, usually 50 acres, given to settlers in the 13 colonies.
The system was used mainly in Virginia, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Maryland.
It proved to be quite effective by increasing the population in the British colonies.
Individuals who could afford it would accumulate land by paying for poor individuals to travel to the New World.
Headright System Continued
This system led to the development of
indentured servitude
.
In this system, poor individuals would work for a certain number of years to repay those who sponsored their trip. (about $215 in today's money)
Even if the indentured servant did not make it to the colonies alive, the sponsor still received land.
The earliest exploration of North Carolina by a European expedition is likely that of Giovanni da Verrazzano in 1524.
When Verazzano saw the Albemarle and Pamlico Sounds opposite the Outer Banks, he thought he was seeing the Pacific Ocean.
His reports helped fuel the belief that the westward route to Asia was much closer than previously believed.
The earliest English attempt at colonization in North America was Roanoke Colony of 1584–1587, the famed "Lost Colony" of Sir Walter Raleigh.
The colony was established at Roanoke Island in the Croatan Sound.
Virginia Dare - first English baby born in New World
The Spanish War prevented any further contact between the colony and England until 1590.
no remains of the colonists were found, just an abandoned colony and the letters "CROATOAN" carved into a tree
no one knows what happened to the colony.
In 1629, Charles I, King of England, granted his attorney general a charter to everything between latitudes 36 and 31.
He called this land the Province of Carolina.
Southern
In 1663, Charles II granted the land to eight Lords Proprietors as a reward for restoring him to the throne.
Charles II wanted Carolina to prevent Spanish expansion northward.
In 1719 the colony was officially split into the provinces of North Carolina and South Carolina, and both were royal colonies.
The colony had many
advantages
shrewd planters and businessmen
a major harbor
the expansion of cost-efficient African slave labor
rich soil and a long growing season
Planters established rice and indigo as commodity crops, based in developing large plantations.
Drawing of an Early Indigo Plantation
In 1624, the Virginia Company (that had established Jamestown) had it's charter revoked.
The colony became a royal colony, but the elected representatives in Jamestown continued to have some power.
Under royal authority, the colony began to expand to the North and West with additional settlements.
Tobacco became more and more important to the economy of the English colonies as it became more popular in England and Europe.
Vast plantations were built along the rivers of Virginia, and slavery increased to provide labor.
The English destroyed the Spanish mission system in Georgia by 1704, and most of the native tribes had been driven out in skirmishes with British-allied tribes.
English settlement began in the early 1730s after
James Oglethorpe
, proposed that the area be colonized with the "worthy poor" of England, to provide an alternative to the overcrowded debtors' prisons.
From 1735 to 1750 Georgia's governors prohibited African slavery, trying to keep Georgia a colony of small farms.
after 1750, when the slave ban was lifted, the number of slaves increased dramatically - from 500 to 18,000 over the next 20 years
rice, indigo, and sugar cane were the main crops
In 1752 Georgia became a royal colony.
Colonists made their living through mixed farming, fishing, and shipbuilding.
primarily a colony of farmers
another farming colony
During the seventeenth century, push was stronger in England than in the Netherlands.
The Netherlands’ had a booming economy and a high standard of living, so the Dutch had less cause to leave home than did the English.
The Dutch did not have lots of homeless poor like the people who became servants in the Southern Colonies.
The Dutch tolerated most religions, so there wasn't a persecuted religious minority, like the Puritans who founded New England.
The English succeeded as colonizers largely because their troubled society failed to satisfy their people at home.
Push factors
motivate people to leave their home countries.
Ex: religious persecution pushed the Puritans out of England.

Pull factors
attract people to a new location.
Ex: the promise of a better life and fertile soil may pull people to a new land.

Push-and-Pull Factors
Despite an appealing location and religious toleration, the Dutch colony attracted few immigrants.
In getting people to come to the colonies,
push factors
were stronger than
pull factors
.
The Dutch Establish New Netherland
1609 - Dutch merchants sent ships across the Atlantic and up the Hudson River to trade for furs with the Indians.
1614 - founded a permanent settlement at Fort Nassau on the upper river.
1625 - Built New Amsterdam at the tip of Manhattan Island.
This gave them the best harbor on the Atlantic coast.
Colony was ruled by authoritarian governors
Tolerant toward various religious groups, including Jews.
creates a very diverse group of colonists, from the Netherlands, France, Germany, and Norway.
Most of the colonists were of the middle class and poor.
Came as families
The Middle Colonies had the most fertile farmland and a mild climate.
Wheat became the regions most important cash crop.
rivers were used to transport trade goods
major cities developed where these rivers emptied into the ocean
A population explosion in the early 1700s creates a high demand for wheat.
population explosion also results in many immigrants settling in the region.
Climate and the Economy
Some colonists became
entrepreneurs
.
risked money buying land, equipment, and supplies and selling them to immigrants
Capitalists: a new class of people who invest money into new businesses to make a profit
Capitalism Emerges
Salutary Neglect
Generally the British government did not supervise the colonies very closely.
Under a policy of
salutary neglect
, as long as raw materials continued to flow into England, and colonists continued to buy English goods, the British government was very relaxed in its enforcement of most regulations.
The colonies mostly governed themselves.
This policy of
salutary neglect
had an important effect on colonial politics as well as economics.
the governor, appointed by the king, was supposed to be the highest authority in a colony
BUT the governor's salary was paid by the colonial assembly - gave the assembly a lot of influence
Colonies developed a taste for self-government.
BUT most still considered themselves loyal British citizens.
Was threatened with arrest and deportation, but fled to unsettled Rhode Island territory instead.
Roger Williams bought the land from the local Indians
Williams created controversy by
claiming English settlers had no right to the
land unless they purchased it from the Native Americans, and by saying the government officials should not punish settlers for their religious beliefs.
Anne Hutchinson taught that worshipers didn't need the church or ministers to interpret the Bible for them.
She was also banished so she and her followers headed into the new Rhode Island colony as well.
Anne Hutchinson being banished.
New England's Economy
Fall Line
= an area where rivers descend from a high elevation to a lower one, causing waterfalls
waterfalls provided power for sawmills
lumber was used in furniture making, barrel manufacturing, and shipbuilding.
Trade and the Rise of Cities
New England colonies wanted British goods but were not allowed to sell their own products in England
traded fish and lumber in the Caribbean for sugar or
bills of exchange
bills of exchange: credit slips that could be traded for English manufactured goods
Increase in trade leads to the development of cities
merchants become the upper class in the New England colonies
middle class artisans (skilled craftsmen) make up nearly half the population
carpenters, silversmiths, shoemakers
innkeepers ad shop owners also make up the middle class.
The colony was later the scene of a bloody and raging war between the English and Indians, known as the
Pequot War
.
The
Pequot War
was an armed conflict between 1634–1638 between the Pequot tribe against an alliance of the Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, and Saybrook colonies who were aided by their Native American allies (the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes). Hundreds were killed; hundreds more were captured and sold into slavery to the West Indies.
The effect of the Pequot War was profound. Overnight the balance of power had shifted from the populous but unorganized natives to the English colonies. From then on, until King Philip's War, there was no combination of Indian tribes that could seriously threaten the English. The destruction of the Pequots cleared away the only major obstacle to Puritan expansion. And the thoroughness of that destruction made a deep impression on the other tribes.
New England
Founded in 1630 by John Winthrop
Winthrop was part of a group of English Puritans who wanted to reform the Church of England, but still wanted to be a part of it.
They were persecuted a lot for this.
Winthrop told his wife in 1629 "...the Lord will provide a shelter and a hiding place for us..."
with the help of some of his well-connected friends, Winthrop got a royal charter for a joint-stock company called the
Massachusetts Bay Company
.
Founded in 1620 by William Bradford
Full transcript