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Transcript of Ellipsis
Kinds of ellipis
They can be simple or complex.
Ellipsis of Subject
Ellipsis of subject and auxiliaries
Auxiliaries in predication ellipsis
Items are ellipted both anaphorically or cataphorically in the same sentence:
If subjects of coordinated clauses are identical, ellipsis applies:
Peter ate the fruit and ^ drank the beer.
John has read the book or ^ saw the film.
If identical auxiliaries are present, then the pro-form is as normal as ellipsis (You have 2 options):
John has read the book or he has seen the film.
(First option - No ellipsis)
But if the auxiliaries are different, ellipsis is more normal/common:
Mary has washed the dishes and ^ will dry them.
If both subject and auxiliaries are identical, both of them are normally ellipted:
Alice is washing and ^ dressing.
(Two ellipted elements: 'Alice' and 'is')
Peter must have broken in and ^ stolen the papers.
(Three eliipted elements: 'Pedro', 'must' and 'have')
Repeated subject and auxiliaries in subordination
We can contrast coordination and subordination with respect to ellipsis of subject and auxiliaries. In subordinated clauses, ellipsis of subject alone or of subject with auxiliaries is not allowed. In other words, ellipsis is not possible in subordinated sentences, but it is possible in coordinated sentences:
Ellipsis of auxiliary
The ellipsis is possible under certain conditions
a) The auxiliary cannot be ellipted if the subjects are identical or co-referential, and the subject is not ellipted as well:
In such instances, either the subject is ellipted or both subject and auxiliary are ellipted.
b) If the subjects are different, ellipsis of only the auxiliary is allowed:
If there is more than 1 auxiliary, it is normal for all to be ellipted:
If the verbs in both clauses are identical, ellipsis of only the auxiliary is not possible:
Ellipsis of predication
a) Lexical verb only (verbs different from auxiliaries and modals):
b) Verb, including auxiliary:
Ellipsis of the entire verb phrase or of only the lexical verb can take place in clauses containig an object and an object complement, but the subject must be ellipted as well:
c) Verb and subject complement:
d) Verb and object:
a) Present and modal:
b) Past and modal:
c) Perfective and Modal:
d) Progressive and modal:
e) Progressive and Perfective:
f) Past and perfective:
Ellipsis of whole predication
Ellipsis involving both coordination and subordination
Coordination: Other than casual (We don't only coordinate clauses, we can also coordinate other things)
If the predication is ellipted completely, there is a choise between having the realized items in the first clause or in the last (Anaphora or Cataphora):
When the predication is ellipted completely, the subject can also be ellipted, but only in clauses subsequent to the first:
When the realized subject is in the first clause and the realized predication is elsewhere, we have complex ellipsis:
A set of coordinated clauses, one or more of which is/are elliptical, can be subordinated to another clause (You need to have minimum two sentences):
However, if only one of the clauses is subordinated, there cannot be ellipsis of the subject and / or the auxiliaries:
a) Noun phrases:
Within the noun phrase there may be ellipsis of the head:
b) Prepositional phrase:
e) Derivational prefixes and elements of a compound:
In simple ellipsis, either the ellipsis occurs in only one of the conjoined clauses:
They were married in 1980 and ^ divorced in 1990.
(In this example, ellipsis occurred in the second conjoined sentence.)
Or identical items are ellipted in two or more conjoined clauses:
They were married in 1980, ^ divorced in 1990 and ^ reconciled in 2000.
(This is an example of three conjoined sentences and ellipsis here is anaphoric)
John can ^, and Bob certainly will, pass the examination.
(Cataphoric ellipsis in two conjoined sentences)
If more than two clauses are conjoined with complex ellipsis, the middle clause or clauses may share the ellipsis of both the first and the last clauses:
Bob is ^ and ^ always will be, unhappy.
(Cataphoric and anaphoric)
My friend owns ^, admires ^, and ^ often looks at, paintings.
You can ellipt specific elements.
John has read the book or ^ has seen the film.
(Second option - ellipsis when auxiliaries are present)
Jack was looking well although he had slept little.
(Normal sentence without ellipsis)
Jack was looking well although ^ had slept little*
Susan had looked after the baby while she has stayed with us.
(Normal sentences without ellipsis)
Susan had looked after the baby while ^ has stayed with us.
Peter will be taking the course and Peter
passing the exam.*
(Incorrect - you have to ellipt 'Peter' too because it is co-referential).
Peter will be taking the course and ^
passing the exam.
John must clean his room and Peter ^ read his book.
John will be playing the guitar and Mary ^ preparing the supper.
(The ellipted elements are the two auxiliaries 'will' and 'be'.
John will take the French course and Peter ^ take the German course.*
John will take the French course and Peter will take the German course.
(Correct - No ellipsis)
John will take the French course and Peter ^ the German course.
She has written to her parents and she may ^, to her sister.
Alice was happy and Susan ^ miserable.
Charles has written a poem and Bob ^ a short story.
(We ellipted 'has' and 'written')
John was given a railway set, and Sue ^ a doll.
(We ellipted 'was' and 'given')
He has promised John a book, ^ Bill a watch, and ^ Mary a doll.
He has promised John a book,he ^ Bill a watch, and he ^ Mary a doll.
(Wrong way - The subject must be ellipted as well)
John was the winner in 1990 qnd Bob ^ in 1998.
(^ = was the winner)
The administration seems obstinate in our school and the teachers ^ in your school.
(^ = seems obstinate).
Jane will cook the meal today and Barbara ^ tomorrow.
(^= will cook the meal)
Combinations (They are possible because they co-referential)
the situation and surely Peter should
the competition and Paul may
John hasn't met
my brother yet, but ^ will ^
(modal). FIRST OPTION
John hasn't met
my brother yet, but he will
. SECOND OPTION
Peter is complaining
about the noise, but John won't
John is questioning (progressive) our motives, and Bill has (perfective) ^ our results.
your parents last week, but ^ hasn't ^
George will take the course and Bob might ^. (anaphoric: We ommit the predicate)
George will ^, and Bob might, take the course. (Cataphoric)
They can pay the full fee, and ^ certainly should ^ but ^ probably won't ^.
(Take into account the previous example)
They no doubt, ^ can ^, and certainly ^ should ^.
Peter must have broken in ^ and ^ stolen the papers.
(This sentence can be subordinated to another sentence without any problem).
Peter must have broken in and I'm sure that stolen the papers.*
There is no doubt that Peter ate the fruit and ^ drank the beer.
Peter ate the fruit and there is no doubt that ^ drank the beer.*
Peter and John were there.
(Peter and John are coordinated)
I spoke to the old man and the old woman.
Old ^ and young men were invited.
Honest ^ and clever students always succeed.
He spoke /for/ the first motion and /against/ the second motion.
They came /quickly/ and ^ with great force. (^ = they came)
She is young and ^ beautiful.
His clear and forceful argument impressed me.