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World War I
Transcript of World War I
Zimmermann Note- In 1917 was a proposal from the German Empire for Mexico to join the Central Powers, sent as a coded telegram. German wanted Mexico if United States entering World War I on the side of the Allied Powers. The message was caught and decoded by British intelligence. The contents was shared American public and helped generate support for the United States declaration of war on Germany in April of that year.
Battle of the Atlantic
Lusitania- was a British ocean liner, and was the world's biggest ship at its time. It was launched in 1907, at a time of fierce competition for the North Atlantic trade. In 1915 It was hit by a torpedoed and sunk by a German U-boat, with the loss of 1198 lives.
U-boats- In an attempt to contend with the British Navy, Germany began to produce a new weapon of war—the U-boat or know as submarines. U-boats, did not follow the traditional rules of engagement, which required raiders to stop a vessel, examine its cargo, and allow passengers to escape before sinking the ship. The strength of the submarine was its ability to strike without warning, while its major weakness was its inability when surfaced to defend itself.
The Start and Causes of WW1
On 28 June 1914 , Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian Serb student, assassinated Archduke Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian throne. This began a month of diplomatic maneuvering between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France, and Britain called the July Crisis.
July Crisis- Austria made a list of ten demands and when Serbia only agreed to 8 Austria declared War. Russia in hopes of saving there Balkan influences, told Austria they would attack them if they attacked Serbia. When Germany heard this they told Russia to back off and when they did everyone started to race in militarize in the Allied and Central Powers.
Beginning of the "Great War"
Allied Power (Green)- Russia, Romania, Seriba, Greece, France, Portugal, Great Britain, and Montenegro.
Central Powers (Red)- Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.
Neutral- Spain, the Netherlands,Albania, Denmark, Norway, Sweden and of course the Switzerland
Started as Central and Switched to the Allied- Italy
American Attempts to stay out of WW1
America wanted to ben neutral but that was soon tested on what the U.S. considered free international waters. Both the Allied and Central Powers hoped to gain advantage over the other by controlling America’s trade relationships. Britain, who controlled the span of the North Atlantic Ocean, refused to allow American goods to be shipped to Germany and declared all cargo in neutral waters to be contraband. Britain then began seizing U.S. goods. This upset President Woodrow Wilson and instead of attacking either they remained neutral.
Battle of the Atlantic
The Blockade of Germany, or the more like Blockade of Europe, occurred from 1914–1919 and operation by the Allied Powers during and after World War 1 in an effort to restrict the supply of raw materials and food to the Central Powers, which included Germany, Austria-Hungary and Ottomen Empire. It is considered one of the key elements in the eventual allied victory in the war.
Countries Fight on the Main Fronts (West in France and East Between Germany and Russia) Dug Trenches To get out of the firing lines. This new war style brought new problems such as very easy to be chemically attacked by the enemy and the area between the two trenches know as no mans land. It wrote that from a bird eye view there was trenches that where as long as 400 miles not inclueing the twist and turns.
Rifle-The main weapon used in the trenches was the bolt-action rifle. 15 rounds could be fired in a minute and a person 1,400 metres away could be killed.
Machine guns- Needed 4-6 men to work them and had to be on a flat surface. They had the fire-power of 100 guns.
Gas- The German army were the first to use chlorine gas at the battle of Ypres in 1915. Chlorine gas causes a burning sensation in the throat and chest pains. Death is painful.The problem with chlorine gas is that the weather must be right. If the wind is in the wrong direction it could end up killing your own troops rather than the enemy.
Mustard gas was the most deadly weapon used. It was fired into the trenches in shells. It is colourless and takes 12 hours to take effect. Effects include: blistering skin, vomiting, sore eyes, internal and external bleeding. Death can take up to 5 weeks.
New Weapons Con.
Zeppelin- also known as blimp, was an airship that was used during the early part of the war. They carryied machine guns and bombs.
Tanks- were used for the first time in the First World War at the Battle of the Somme. They were developed to help with the conditions on the Western Front.
Planes- were also used for the first time. At first they were used to deliver bombs and for spying work but became fighter aircraft armed with machine guns, bombs and some times cannons.
Torpedoes- were used by submarines. The Germans used torpedoes to blow up ships carrying supplies from America to Britain
American Expedition Force or the dough boys and later changed to G.I. were the American marines and army that fought along side the French and British in the Western Front on the end of the war.
People Against the War
A conscientious objector-is an individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, and/or religion.
Blacks and Women (Not all)- most blacks felt it wrong that they could die for the nation in war but could not vote and women the same but instead of them there husbands.
Changes in the Government
Selective Service Act- Selective Draft Act authorized the federal government to raise a national army for the American entry into World War 1.
The Espionage Act- United States federal law passed on June 15, 1917, shortly after the U.S. entry into World War I. It has been amended numerous times over the years. It was intended to prohibit attempts to interfere with military operations, to support U.S. enemies during wartime.
Sedition Act- Clears up the Espionage act with broader line of offenses, notably speech and the expression of opinion that cast the war effort in a negative way.
Alvin Cullum York
Sergeant York for the AEF was one of the most decorated American soldiers in World War 1. He received the Medal of Honor for leading an attack on a German machine gun nest, taking 32 machine guns, killing 28 German soldiers and capturing 132 others.
Emperor Kaiser Wilhlem 2
Emperor Wilhlem was the last emperor of the German Empire and the last king of Prussia. Emperor Wilhlem was a great friend of Archduke Ferinand and was upset when he was assassinated. Emperor Wilhlem had no real political power but wanted German to do anything it could to take out Ferdinand Killers.
People Against the War Con.
When the United States entered the war, Henry Cobat Lodge an Massachusetts senator attacked Wilson saying that he was hopelessly idealistic, assailing becaus the Fourteen Points are unrealistic and weak. He contended that Germany needed to be militarily and economically crushed with harsh penalties so that it could never again be a threat to Europe.
President Woodrow Wilson's 14 points
Woodrow Wilson's 14 points main point is to persuade. Wilson was the first national leader to address the world, including Western Europe, South America, and Asia through radio transmission. He hoped to persuade the governments and people of American and their new allies to support his vision, particularly a league of nations. Wilson's Fourteen Points address was also broadcast into the enemy nations, where he hoped he would persuade the German and Austrian people to pressure their governments to make peace. The speech made by Wilson on January 8, 1918 laid out a policy of free trade, open agreements, democracy and self-determination.
League of Nations
The League of Nations was an intergovernmental organization founded as a result of the Paris Peace Conference and President Woodrow Wilson's 14 point speech that ended the First World War. It was the first international organization whose principal mission was to maintain world peace
We did not even join the League of Nations and we helped make it.
John "Black Jack" Pershing
Mr. Pershing was a general officer in the United States Army who led the American Expeditionary Forces in World War I. Pershing is the only person to be promoted in his own lifetime to the highest rank ever held in the United States Army—General of the Armies. In 1976 the Untied States promoted George Washington to the same rank but with higher seniority.
Home Front During the War
During the war, Propaganda was spreading all over United States to promote and help the war effort. People were encouraged to grow garden and feed them selfs so there was more food for the AEF. Along with food and helping African Americans start to move up to New York City, Detriot and Chicago because of the job opens of the men and women entering the war.
Imperialism During the War
The British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa. With the rise of industrialism countries needed new markets. The amount of lands 'owned' by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa.
Nationalism in the War
Nationalism and extreme patriotism were significant contributing factors to the outbreak of World War I. Every one of Europe’s Great Powers developed a firm but excessive belief in its own cultural, economic and military is or was the best. This over-confidence gave birth to a fatal misunderstanding: that in the event of war in Europe, one’s own country would be victorious inside a few months.
When I was 17 I lied to the national guard so I could have a stable job. Little did I know when I got in WW1 broke out two months later. I was sent to eastern France to be on the front lines. When I about to been sent out my mom came to see me. She said "John, just don't be a hero and come home safe." I said "I will do as i'm told mom, there's a rumor i'm with this man named John Pershing and he's an ace fighter." Months later when I got through basic training I was shipped where I thought Eastern Front and with a Man i thought John Pershing. We got there and the first thing we got was our gun, a bolt action rifle and a shovel to dig a trench. More on next slide.
When we dug our holes I thought it would be good to connect with the guy next to me so i'm not alone. Later there was over 400 miles of my idea across the France. In Regiments all over the front there was many different people helping, Women as nurses and helping cook, there was rumors in Russia that women were fighting next to the men on the front lines. Blacks even had there own Regiments. The 15th from New York or the Harlem Hellfighters were one of the best army groups we had. After being in France for what I thought was 100 years but was only like 3.
The word going around was there was a treaty called the Treaty of Versailles was being sign forcing Germany to take full blame for the war, harsh money problems and had to have a army with less than 100,000 men. We all heard the news and with in six months I was home with my mom and the war was over.