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PSY 101 - Are You Straight?
Transcript of PSY 101 - Are You Straight?
we can use a "Scale" to determine
one's sexuality. Alfred Kinsey was an American biologist, professor of entomology and zoology, and sexologist who, in 1947, founded the Institute for Sex Research at Indiana University. He's the one responsible for the
Kinsey Scale Well, if you want to know what's your sexual rating, you can check it out here: http://vistriai.com/kinseyscaletest/ NOW, ARE YOU SURE YOU'RE STRAIGHT? WHAT DO WE KNOW ABOUT HOMOSEXUALITY? Achilles and Patroclus were believed to be one of the first homosexuals in Ancient Greek History. Men could also seek adolescent boys as partners as shown by some of the earliest documents concerning same-sex pederastic relationships, which come from Ancient Greece. On Psychiatric perspectives, Sigmund Freud, among others, argued that neither predominantly different- nor same-sex sexuality were the norm, instead that what is called "bisexuality" is the normal human condition thwarted by society. Homosexuality was deemed to be a psychiatric disorder for many years, although the studies this theory was based on were later determined to be flawed. Even now, most societies deem homosexuality as a sin, as a disease and as taboo. They try to "cure" it and cases of corrective rape are also present. But did you know that homosexuality is probably one of the few steps of nature towards evolution? He was saying that "Males and Females do not represent two discrete populations, heterosexual and homosexual. The world is not to be divided into sheep and goats. The living world is a continuum in each and every one of its aspects." Take note though that there is no ‘test.’ The scale is purely a method of self-evaluation based on your individual experience, and the rating you choose may change over time. Today, many sexologists see the Kinsey scale as relevant to sexual orientation but not comprehensive enough to cover all sexual identity issues. They suggest that sexual identity involves at least three different spectra, sexual orientation being only one of them (two others being biological sex and gender identity). SEXUAL ORIENTATION is one's preference, whether heterosexual, homosexual or the ones in between. BIOLOGICAL IDENTITY is what nature assigned to you biologically - female and male. Tip, check your genitals. GENDER IDENTITY is how you feel about yourself, whether you feel that you're a man or a woman, regardless of biological sex. Mostly, discrimination roots from
the fact that homosexuality is wrong, as believed by societies of the world. An example is corrective rape. Individuals perceived to be homosexual or transgendered are sexually assaulted in an attempt to cure them of their sexual or gender orientation. It is a violent and demeaning act that leads to trauma, mutilation, unwanted pregnancy and transmission of HIV among the lesbian and gay populations in countries where this act is prevalent. His works have been criticized because of their controversies and supposed unethical methodologies.
And did you know that Liam Neeson played as Alfred Kinsey in Kinsey, a film based on Kinsey's life? However, homosexuality roots not from viruses or psychological problems but from other factors including but not limited to biological assignment which may or may not be steps towards evolution. Researchers claim it is known that there are well-established traits which differ between girls and boys, with, for example, boys more likely to engage in 'rough and tumble' play. Between 50 to 80 per cent of gender non-conforming boys become gay, and around a third of non-conforming girls become lesbian. Doctors Andrea Burri and Qazi Rahman of Queen Mary University in London believe that in girls, genes may be partially responsible for gender non-conformity and, by association, sexual orientation. They followed a group of 4000 female twins, asking them about their sexual attractions and gender non-conformity. They discovered genetic influences on sexual orientation at 25% and childhood gender nonconformity at 31%. Dr. Rahman said that one idea is that there is an association between these psychological traits and sexual orientation because they all develop under common biological drivers; like the development of brain regions under the influence of genes and sex hormones. Doctors Andrea Burri and Qazi Rahman from Queen Mary University in London thinks that environmental factors and genetics drive other mechanisms, like exposure to sex hormones in the womb, to shape differences in gender nonconformity and sexuality simultaneously. "Our results suggest that being gender nonconforming and lesbian comes from 'within'; there is little you can do about it.
So gender nonconformity does not cause mental health problems, but it may trigger negative reactions from other people (like parents and peers) leading to mental health problems." The Swedish study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal, compared the size of the brain's halves in 90 adults. Gay men and heterosexual women had halves of a similar size, while the right side was bigger in lesbian women and heterosexual men.
A UK scientist said this was evidence sexual orientation was set in the womb. An Italian research team from the University of Padova and the University of Torino in Italy, found that the evolutionary origin and maintenance of male homosexuality in human populations could be explained by a model based around the idea of sexually antagonistic selection, in which genetic factors spread in the population by giving a reproductive advantage to one sex while disadvantaging the other. Male homosexuality is thought to be suggested by the high concordance of sexual orientation in identical twins and the fact that homosexuality is more common in males belonging to the maternal line of male homosexuals. These effects have not been shown for female homosexuality, indicating that these two phenomena may have very different origins and dynamics. The results of this model show the interaction of male homosexuality with increased female fecundity within human populations, in a complex dynamic, resulting in the maintenance of male homosexuality at stable and relatively low frequencies, and highlighting the effects of heredity through the maternal line. In layman's term, the maintenance of male homosexuality is argued to be present because it would allow more chances of reproduction for females, thus balanced sex distribution among the population. This means that the genes influencing male homosexuality end up playing the role of a buffer effect on any external factors lowering the overall fecundity of the whole population. In a simpler explanation, male homosexuality balances the chances of reproduction and thus prevents over population. And not just because they steal boyfriends or anything. Scientists have noticed for some time that homosexual people of both sexes have differences in certain cognitive abilities, suggesting there may be subtle differences in their brain structure. A group of 90 healthy gay and heterosexual adults, men and women, were scanned by the Karolinska Institute scientists to measure the volume of both sides, or hemispheres, of their brain. When these results were collected, it was found that lesbians and heterosexual men shared a particular "asymmetry" in their hemisphere size, while heterosexual women and gay men had no difference between the size of the different halves of their brain. In other words, structurally, at least, the brains of gay men were more like heterosexual women, and gay women more like heterosexual men.
A further experiment found that in one particular area of the brain, the amygdala, there were other significant differences. Dr Qazi Rahman said that he believed that these brain differences were laid down early in fetal development. As far as I'm concerned there is no argument any more - if you are gay, you are born gay," he said. SOURCES: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sciencetech/article-2013383/Tomboys-likely-turn-lesbians-genetic-make-up.html