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The Uses of Petroleum Fractions
Transcript of The Uses of Petroleum Fractions
Properties and Uses of Various Petroleum Fractions
The Petroleum and Natural Gas Contribution to The Economic Development of The Country
Efficient Use of Petroleum and Other Natural Fuel Resources
Chapter 6: The Land and It Resources
thick, sticky black oil found trapped in the ground between two layers of non- porous rock
petroleum was formed millions of years ago when small organisms living in the sea died and settled at the bottom of the sea
the dead organisms were covered by layers of sediment in the sea. the high temperature and pressure on the dead changed them into petroleum
later earth movements had caused certain areas together with the petroleum to rise above the sea level
petroleum is a mixture of several hydrocarbons which are separated by a process called fractional distillation
a hydrocarbon is a compound which consists of hydrogen and carbon only
The fractions obtained from petroleum are mainly used as fuels and for making synthetic materials such as:
synthetic fibres (nylon, rayon)
Petroleum gas • Fuel gas for cooking
Naphtha • Fuel for airplanes
Petrol • Fuels for motorcycles, cars and aeroplanes
Kerosene • Fuel for jet planes and kerosene lamps and for making detergents
Diesel • Fuel for diesel engines and boilers
Lubricating oil • Engine lubricant and to make polish
Fuel oil • Fuel for ships and electrical generators
Paraffin • For making wax and polish
Bitumen • For covering roads and as a coating for underground pipes
About 75% of the total energy used in Malaysia comes from petroleum.
Petroleum is the main source of energy for:
running factories such as food canning factories
mining and smelting metal ores such as tin ore and iron ore
agricultural industries such as rubber and oil palm plantations
our homes, offices, hospitals and schools
our vehicles such as cars and buses
Petroleum is one of Malaysia's main exports.
Malaysia earns a lot of money which is used for the welfare of the citizens and the development of the country.
The petroleum industry has created many other industries such as petrochemical industries, shipping, transport and industries for household products such as cooking gas.
The new industries has created many more jobs for the people and also attracted foreign investors.
Petroleum, natural gas and coal are non-renewable fuel resources. Once used up, they can't be replaced.
We must ensure that these resources are used efficiently so that they will last as long as possible.
Several ways to save fuel resources are suggested below.
switch of the electric current at once when it is not used.
use public transport more frequently instead of using our motor cars in order to save petrol or diesel.
recycle used things such as aluminium cans, iron articles and bottles. This is because energy from resources is needed to make these things.
find more efficient ways to get or obtain petroleum, natural gas and coal so that there is a little wastage of these resources as possible.
do not use a washing machine to wash just a few pieces of clothes.
An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is processed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene and liquefied petroleum gas.
Oil refineries are typically large, sprawling industrial complexes with extensive piping running throughout, carrying streams of fluids between large chemical processing units.
In many ways, oil refineries use much of the technology of, and can be thought of, as types of chemical plants.
The crude oil feedstock has typically been processed by an oil production plant. There is usually an oil depot (tank farm) at or near an oil refinery for the storage of incoming crude oil feedstock as well as bulk liquid products.
An oil refinery is considered an essential part of the downstream side of the petroleum industry.
fractional distillation of petroleum is a process in which the petroleum is boiled and the different hydrocarbons are distilled off at different temperatures.
hydrocarbons have different boiling points. a hydrocarbon is distilled off at its boiling point.
each separated hydrocarbon is called fraction.
hydrocarbons with lower boiling points are separated first.
the early fractions:
are clearer in appearance
are less viscous
release less carbon when they burn
the early fractions make better fuels
petroleum gas is the first fraction, bitumen is the residue left at the bottom of the distillation column
all the fractions are insoluble in water and burn easily
some fractions which have small molecules are in bigger demand, e.g. petrol and kerosene
some fractions which have large molecules are broken up into smaller molecules by the process called cracking
the fractions obtained from the distillation column usually need to be treated before being sent to consumers.