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AP Psych Sensing the World


Michael Crawford

on 29 September 2012

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Transcript of AP Psych Sensing the World

Anatomical Structure Transduction Processing Most visual processing occurs in the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe. The information collected by the right eye is transmitted to the left hemisphere and what is collected by the left eye is transferred to the left hemisphere. Cells called feature detectors interpret basic characteristics of the environment, like outlines and edges. Other sets of nerves detect qualities like color and movement, performing parallel processing to interpret the separate pieces of information simultaneously and integrate them to perceive a single image. Different parts of the brain are stimulated by different types of objects. Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Application In an hilarious opening scene, Jack Sparrow attempts to elude British authorities. He jumps out of a window, swings across a street on an overhanging rope, then proceeds to leap across a number of carriages. Without his vision, he would be completely unable to perform these parkour-esque stunts. VISION (2012). Pseudotumor Cerebri. Retrieved from: http://www.southbayophthalmology.com/other-eye-conditions/pseudotumor-cerebri/ The light enters through the cornea, which is a protective outer coating for the eye. It then passes through the pupil, which changes the amount of light that passes into the eye depending on the environment. The colored ring of muscle known as the iris adjusts the opening of the pupil. This light passes through the lens, which adjusts itself in a process called accommodation to focus on objects of different distances. The upside down image falls on the retina, where it is processed by cells called rods and cones. Rods have high sensitivity to light and cones have high sensitivity to color. Rods and cones connect to bipolar neurons, which in turn connect to ganglion cells. The axons of the ganglion cells form the bundle of fibers known as the optic nerve, which transmits the electrical information to the brain. The process of transduction occurs in the rods and cones, and the resulting action potential is transmitted over a synaptic cleft to the bipolar cells.

(2012). Sensation and Perception. Retrieved from: http://www.sparknotes.com/psychology/psych101/sensation/section2.rhtml Anatomical Structure Transduction Processing ---------------------------------------------- Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Application ---------------------------------------------- (2001). Landfill Gas Safety and Health Issues. Retrieved from: http://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/landfill/html/images/fig3_2.gif Anatomical Structure Transduction Processing ---------------------------------------------- Pirates of the Caribbean: On Stranger Tides Application ---------------------------------------------- Coulter Gary R. and Vogt, Gregory L. (2012). The Effects of Space Flight on the Human Vestibular System. Retrieved from: http://weboflife.nasa.gov/learningResources/vestibularbrief.htm ---------------------------------------------- SMELL The olfactory mucosa high in the nasal cavity contains receptor neurons that respond to specific smells. These neurons have cilia, or hair-like projections to which receptor proteins are attached. When odor molecules connect to the receptor proteins, an electrical response triggers in the cilia. This signal is sent directly to the brain through the olfactory nerve.

Boroditsky, Lera (1999). Taste, Smell, and Touch: Lecture Notes. Retrieved from: http://www-psych.stanford.edu/~lera/psych115s/notes/lecture11/ AUDITORY Perception As for taste perception, when the receptors respond, the temporal lobe of the brain is alerted; it then interprets the sense, and tells you what you taste. Though the temporal lobe plays a huge role in taste perception, your frontal lobes are putting in some effort too. When you can see what you are eating, or if someone tells you something that changes your opinion of what you are about to ingest, you have expectations. These expectations are processed in your frontal lobes, which can affect how you perceive your food. To simplify this, here’s an example: If you are about to eat a jalapeno pepper for the first time, you know by what others say, or by watching others’ reactions that it is SPICY. Pirates Application Captain Jack Sparrow’s taste buds were adapted to give him a preference for rum. Along with the rest of the pirates, he needed a steady supply of rum to keep going, otherwise he had withdrawal. This is seen in the scene on the island in Curse of the Black Pearl. Elizabeth disposes of all the rum over the night they are stranded there and Jack Sparrow repeatedly asks “Why is the rum gone?” He ignores the blazing fire behind him because he’s so preoccupied with getting his daily fix! TASTE Transduction Anatomical Illustration (2010). Special Sense Quiz. Retrieved from: http://designmatrix.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/special-sense-quiz/ Vestibular nuclei on both sides of brainstem transfer signals back and forth about body movement/position. This information is sent to the cerebellum to control muscle movements, reticular formation to guide posture and adjust breathing and circulation according to position, and spinal cord for reflexes to retain balance. Pirates Application In Curse of the Black Pearl, when Captain Jack Sparrow is making his great escape in the beginning of the movie, grabs on to a rope as his initial strategy. After spinning around for a few moments, the guards start shooting at him, so he decides that he needs to get off. He lands on a narrow piece of wood suspended high off the ground. His vestibular sense was vital in allowing him to keep his balance, and in turn, avoid death. Transduction Perception The kinesthetic sensations are received in the parietal lobe, where they are processed and interpreted to let you know your position and movement, if there is any. Pirates Application In Curse of the Black Pearl, Captain Jack Sparrow is captured, but then he escapes. He uses his kinesthetic sense, which lets him know his movements and position, to make the escape. He figures out he’s near the rope, in the position to kick it and let it loose. This causes confusion, through the use of which Jack escapes the guards and quite possibly death. Transduction Kinesthesia uses mostly stretch receptors in muscles, joints, and tendons to recognize our body position and monitor movement. These receptors send your brain information about the angle your limbs are positioned by firing specific numbers of impulses at each given angle. This way, even with your eyes closed, you still know where your arm is in relation to your body.
Citation: Dewey, R. (2007). Kinesthesis. Retrieved from http://www.intropsych.com/ch04_senses/kinesthesis.html Anatomical Illustration Perception Taste is a chemical sense which is sensed via the tongue. On the tongue are little bumps called taste buds, usually numbering 200 or more. Each taste bud has a pore which catches chemicals from food. Inside each pore reside 50 to 100 taste receptor cells, which project antenna – like hairs; these sense food molecules. The receptor cells do what the name suggests: they respond to the chemicals. Some receptors respond to sour, some to salty, some to bitter, some to sweet, and recently, some to a taste called umami. Taste receptors can be destroyed, for example, by eating something too hot. However, there is nothing to fear! Taste receptors reproduce by themselves every week or so. There is a catch though; the older you get, the number of taste buds you have decreases, along with taste sensitivity. Factors that can speed this up are smoking and alcohol. VESTIBULAR Anatomical Illustration (2010). Special Sense Quiz. Retrieved from: http://designmatrix.wordpress.com/2010/08/10/special-sense-quiz/ -------- KINESTHETIC Because you know this information, you’ll be expecting it to be spicy, so it will be. On the other hand, if you look at it and think it’s spicy, but someone tells you it isn’t as spicy as you would think, when you eat it, you won’t think it’s as spicy as it really is. All thanks to your frontal lobes!
The tongue can taste five distinct tastes: sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami. Sweet is perceived as an energy source , and (probably why so many people have a sweet tooth!), salty as the sodium essential to physiological processes, sour as potentially toxic acid, bitter as potential poisons (this could explain why so many people hate veggies like spinach!) and umami as proteins to grow and repair tissue. Anatomical Structure Transduction Processing The sense of touch goes from the spinal cord and brain stem to the thalamus, then to the primary somatosensory area in the parietal lobe that receives sensory input.
Shepherd, G. M. (2007). The major senses: Sight, hearing, taste, smell, and touch — the dana guide. The Dana Guide to Brain Health, Retrieved from https://www.dana.org/news/brainhealth/detail.aspx?id=10064 Pirates Application In the last scene of Pirates of the Caribbean, we see Jack Sparrow caressing the Black Pearl ship’s wheel. He uses his sense of touch to rejoice in its symbolism for winning his prize and all that he’s been through, while really feeling it’s wooden knobs and whorls in the dark wood. TOUCH Nerves exist in your skin that transfer sensations of pain, pressure, light touch, and temperature. The actual activity of cells in transducing touch is still being researched, with new findings that certain cells trigger certain responses that can combine to form reactions to hot or cold etc. B. E., (2007, September 27). Retrieved from http://ericka-oddie.blogspot.com/2007/09/sense-organs.html Citation: (2012). The skin. (2012). [Web Drawing]. Retrieved from http://www.chw.org/display/PPF/DocID/22953/router.asp
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