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Rise of Rome
Transcript of Rise of Rome
Italic civilization that began
growing on Italian Peninsula. Before became the powerful empire, Rome experienced Roman Kingdom(753-509 BC) and Roman Republic(509-27 BC).
This period is called The Rise of Rome. The Romans were influencing the whole western world longer than any civilization that ever existed. Today, lots of nations either are effected by Roman culture or were directly shaped the historical appearances. Etruscan civilization Pre- Roman Culture The First King of Rome Kingdom Romulus (753-719BCE) The myth of Romulus and Remus Romulus and Remus was the son of Mars and priestess Rhea Silvia. After they were born, their uncle Amulius threw them into the Tiber River in order to keep his throne. Fortunately, they were stopped on the shore. The twins were nurtured by a female wolf until they were found by a shepherd. After they grew up, they back to retake their country from their uncle and killed him. But only one person can be the king of Rome. They can’t avoid their internal war. Eventually, Romulus killed his brother Remus to be the first king of the country.
From his name, Romulus named the country Rome. Timeline Etruscan
Republic Etruscans took control
over the Romans the military power of the Etruscans collapsed due to the pressure of the increasingly dominant Romans. Monarchy Democracy by Jiawei Long & Liying Huang Around 507 BCE, the overthrow of the Roman monarchy marks the beginning of Roman Republic. The last Etruscan king , Tarquin the Proud, was expelled by a popular rebellion in 509 BCE Etruscan Legacy They created the first great civilization on the peninsula, whose influence on the Romans as well as on 20th century culture is increasingly recognized. Evidence suggests that it was the Etruscan who taught the Romans the alphabet and numerals, along with many elements of architecture, art, religion, and dress. Some historians suggest that the Julius Caesar as perpetual dictator in 44 BC is the end of Roman Republic The solution of conflicts between patricians and plebeians Plebeian Tribune Carthage: World Power and Rival of Rome
814-44BC The Senate and People of Rome The plebeians were the main fores of Roman Army. They made themselves be defeated or escaped in battles in order to demonstrate to patricians: The plebeians demanded the right to elect their own officials.
Thus, the patricians had to make a concession. The tribunes were elected from assembly of the tribes by plebeians.
At the first the tribune's duties were speaking for plebeians and protecting them from unfair adjudications. *the emerging power in the Mediterranean was viewed with
alarm by the Phoenician city of Carthage, in north Africa.
*Rome and Carthage began a series of conflicts called the
Punic Wars; "Punic" was the Rome word for "Phoenician" First
Punic War second
Punic War Third
During these years, the tribunes and the senators grew increasingly close. The senate realized the need to use plebeian officials to accomplish desired goals.To win over the tribunes, the senators gave the tribunes a great deal of power and the tribunes began to feel obligated to the senate. As the tribunes and the senators grew closer, plebeian senators were often able to secure the tribune for members of their own families. In time, the tribune became a stepping stone to higher office. 264-241BC 218-201BC 149–146 BC Gracchi The Gracchi brothers, Tiberius and Gaius, were Roman plebeian nobiles who both served as tribunes in the late 2nd century BC. They attempted to pass land reform legislation that would redistribute the major patrician landholdings among the plebeians, in addition to other reform measures. Generally considered to be among the most significant of the populares, the Gracchi have been considered the founding fathers of both socialism and populism. After achieving some early success, both were assassinated for their efforts. Hamilcar Barca bids his nine year-old son Hannibal never to be a friend of Rome! "I swear that so soon as age will permit . . . I will Use fire and steel to arrest the destiny of Rome." - Childhood Hanibal Quote Hannibal Barca, the leader of the Carthaginian forces whose name had once struck terror in the Romans survived the Carthaginian surrender at the end of the 2nd Punic War, in 202 B.C. Following a civil career in Carthage, the Romans had asked for his surrender. Instead, Hannibal chose exile. Hannibal lived long enough to help other enemies of Rome, in fulfillment of which lifelong pursuit he was at Bithynia when danger of being extradited to Rome became imminent. Hannibal committed suicide by ingesting poison, in about 183 B.C., at an age not exactly known but approaching 70. [39.51]"....Finally [Hannibal] called for the poison which he had long kept in readiness for such an emergency. 'Let us,' he said, 'relieve the Romans from the anxiety they have so long experienced, since they think it tries their patience too much to wait for an old man's death....'"
Livy Gladiators "All roads lead to Rome." Rome's Imperial Rival Dictatorship of Gaius Julius Caesar Compare to Greece, Rome is more violet and sumptuous. There were bloody entertainments such as gladiatorial combat, gladiators are the slaves that being training to fight each other or against beasts. They would fight until one die and the audiences responded with applause and scream. Because of slaveholders treated their slaves such merciless, under the leadership of Spartacus, the slaves came together and revolted. In 73 BCE, the famous War of Spartacus broke out. The earliest attempt by the Romans to create a code of law was the Laws of the Twelve Tables. A commission of ten men (Decemviri) was appointed (c. 455 B.C.) to draw up a code of law binding on both patrician and plebeian and which consuls would have to enforce. The commission produced enough statutes to fill ten bronze tablets. The plebeians were dissatisfied and so a second commission of ten was therefore appointed (450 B.C.) and two additional tablets were added. What follows are a selection from the Twelve Tables. the architecture of
ancient Rome Another thing should be mention is the architecture of ancient Rome. They had the most advanced buildings in that era. The Rome got great achievement at mechanic and arts. Moreover, Rome had plenty of labors and resources due to the victories of war. They built the huge and gorgeous buildings. Like Colosseum, and Pompeii, those are well-preserve till now. They even created the great drainage system to separate water for different uses. Even from the 15th century to early 20th century, Europeans imitated and studied ancient Rome’s architecture again. People are amazed the achievement of ancient Rome’s architecture and questioning how they make it until now. * formed the most powerful nation in pre-Roman Italy. Of all civilizations of the ancient Mediterranean, it is perhaps the Etruscans who hold the greatest allure. This is because, unlike their Greek and Latin neighbours, the Etruscans left behind no textual sources. They must be approached as if they were a prehistoric people; and the enormous wealth of Etruscan visual and material culture must speak for them. Yet they offer glimpses, in the record left by Greek and Roman authors, that they were literate and far from primordial: indeed, that their written histories were greatly admired by the Romans themselves. Using fresh archaeological insights and discoveries, Corinna Riva describes the birth, growth and demise of this fascinating and enigmatic ancient people, whose nemesis was the growing power of Rome. Exploring the 'discovery' of the Etruscans from the Renaissance onwards, she discusses the mysterious Etruscan language; the 6th-century BCE growth of Etruscan cities and Mediterranean trade; their religion, rituals and burial sites; and the fatal incorporation of Etruria into Rome's political orbit. Colosseum Pompeii Waste was Frequently Emptied Into Street-Side Openings to the Roman Sewers. The sewers carried off sewage, urban runoff, and drainage water together (based on Macaulay). The ancient Rome's roads were very advanced and they last till nowadays. Rise and Fall of Etruscan Civilization As many other civilization or empire longed to, Roman empire sought to expand. Roman target now was Carthage,and vice versa both went in to a three-consequential-war that lasted about 118 years. Although Julius Caesar was assassinated by the leading of Gaius Cassius(senator) and Marcus Brutus(politican), Senate and assemblies remained powerless... Roman Republic finally collapsed and then the golden age, which is the Roman Empire started... Legacy of Roman Republic The spread of Greco-Roman culture
The Concept of Roman Law
--Roman Civil Law
--ius gentium: “the law of the peoples”
Stoic concept of ius naturale: universal, natural law being employed by the Romans
Roman law harmonized with the needs of a world empire and was discerned by reason
Last enduring legacy even after fall of Rome.