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Comparative Table of Early Religions

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Esther Massey

on 25 September 2017

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Transcript of Comparative Table of Early Religions

Comparative Table of Early Religions
Shinto
What is it?
Focuses on ritual practices to be carried out diligently, to establish a connection between present-day Japan and its ancient past. It originated on prehistoric times, and holds an important historical position for Japan.

Beliefs:
To have optimistic faith, and humans are thought to be fundamentally good, and evil is believed to be caused by evil spirits. Purpose of most Shinto rituals is to keep away evil spirits by purification, prayers and offerings to the kami.

Customs:

Religious rituals and prayers are usually done before meals at home. When they pray, they use a kami shelf, or a kamidana. They place things on the shelf like pictures of family, the emperor, and or the amulet of the Ise Shrine. Usually, the Japanese pray, make offerings to the shrine, and clap twice at the shelf every morning and evening.

Place of Worship:
It can take place in the home or at shrines such as Ise Grand Shine or Izumo-taisha.
Zoroastrianism
What is it?
The ancient pre-Islamic religion of Iran that survives there in isolated areas and, in India, where the descendants of Zoroastrian Iranian (Persian) immigrants are known as Parsis, or Parsees. Founded by the Iranian prophet and reformer Zoroaster in the 6th century BCE

Beliefs:
In one God, called Ahura Mazda (meaning 'Wise Lord'). He is compassionate, just, and is the creator of the universe. Ahura Mazda is: Omniscient (knows everything).

Customs:
The main custom most Zoroastrianisms do often is purification so that they do not define there God.

Place of Worship:
A fire temple in Zoroastrianism is the place of worship for Zoroastrians, In the religion, fire, together with clean water, are agents of ritual purity.
Sacred Writings:
The Zorastrian holy book is called the Avesta. This includes the original words of their founder Zarathushtra, preserved in a series of five hymns, called the Gathas. The latter represent the basic source of the religion.

Practices:
They have many different prayers, also tending the sacred fire, coming of age rituals and burial by exposure in the Tower of Silence.

Impact on Society:
played a huge role in the study of comparative religion. Not only was it a cohort of the ancient Vedic Hinduism, but also had a huge influence on the development of Judaism and Christianity.
Jainism
What is it?
Jainism is one the most ancient Indian religions. The three main principles of Jainism are ahimsa (non-violence), anekantavada (non-absolutism), and aparigraha (non-attachment). It was founded by Nataputta Mahavira (599-527 BC). Very similar to Buddhism .

Beliefs:

They do not have one God but Jain Gods are innumerable and their number is continuously increasing as more living beings attain liberation. Jains believe that since the beginning of the time every living being (soul) because of its ignorance, is associated with karmas

Customs:

Pilgrimage and Fasting.

Place of Worship:
At Jain Temple such as Ranakpur, Hutheesing, Digambara, and Shankheshwar Jain Temple.
Thank you
Esther Massey
Taoism
Religious Symbols
Sacred Writings:
Agam Literature: Lord Mahavir's preaching was methodically compiled by his followers into many texts. These texts are collectively known as Agams, the sacred books of the Jain religion. Hence, the Jain religion does not have one sacred book like the Bible or Koran, but it has many books complied by many followers.

Practices:
Festivals and important events in the Jain religion are connected to descent into his mother’s womb, birth, renunciation, attainment of omniscience, and final emancipation.

Impact on Society:
Had a major impact on the contemporary religious and social life. This religion preached the idea of social equality and thus broke the barriers of caste and class. It promoted feelings of the social unity.


Religious Symbols
Sacred Writings:
Laozi who authored the Dao De Jing translated as "The Book of the Way and the Power (or Virtue)."It is filled with short, enigmatic paragraphs of advice on life, and poetic descriptions of the nature of the universe.

Practices:
To know the meaning of Tao directly, Taoists meditate in complex rituals.

Impact on Society:
It helped shape Chinese culture as we know today because it was developed in ancient times of influence and when order was needed.
Religious Symbols
Religious Symbols
What is it?
It is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao meaning"Way". The Three Treasures are compassion, frugality, and 不敢為天下先humility. Started by a man named Lao Tsu who lived around 600 BC. Some believe him to be just an ideal than an actual person.

Beliefs:
They don't believe in a God but are guided through Tao. Belief is based on the idea that there is central or organizing principle of the Universe, a natural order or a "way of heaven" by living in harmony with nature, the cosmos and the Universe.

Customs:
Worship includes praying to deities, purification, meditation on talismans, and making offerings to deities to bring harmony to the universe.

Place of Worship:
A Chinese Taoist temple, generally called Gong, Guan or Miao in Chinese, is the holy hall where Taoists perform their religious ceremonies.
8 Pillars of Taoism
Sacred Writings:
The holy books of Shinto are the Kojiki or 'Records of Ancient Matters' or 'Chronicles of Japan' (720 CE). These books are compilations of ancient myths and traditional teachings that had previously been passed down orally

Practices:
They believe in deities and spirits so the main practices include divination, spirit possession, and shamanic healing.

Impact on Society:
It has mainly affected Japanese society because it is a national religion. Some ways it affects Japan is through Sumo wrestling because of a purification ritual, the Emperor follows some important rituals, they say 'thank you' before each meal, and ghost movies/stories originate from ancient stories etc.
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