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Animal Migration and Hibernation
Transcript of Animal Migration and Hibernation
1. Hibernate: to spend the winter in a resting or sleeping state.
2. Migrate: to move from one place to another, usually going from one climate to another climate.
Example: The Canada Geese found the weather too cold so they began to migrate to a warmer place. We will have to wait until the spring to see them again.
*What is the difference between moving to another place and migrating to another place?
3. Adapt: to change something about oneself to fit into a new situation.
Example: The new student had to adapt to her new school. Everything was so different from her old school. When winter approaches, many animals can no longer find the food that they need to survive. Animals do many different, amazing things to get through the winter. Some of them migrate. This means they travel to other places where the weather is warmer and where they can find food. Many birds migrate in the fall, escaping the cold temperatures before they come. Birds can fly very long distances. For example, the Arctic tern nests close to the North Pole in the summer. In autumn, the tern flies south all the way to Antarctica. Each spring it returns north again. Another animal that migrates is the Monarch Butterfly. Monarch butterflies are not able to survive the cold winters of most of the United States so they migrate south each fall to escape the cold weather. The monarch migration usually starts around October, but can start earlier if the weather turns cold sooner than that. More Animals Migrating Video of Some Cool Animal Migrations Adaptation Instead of migrating, some animals remain and stay active in the winter.
They must adapt to the changing weather. Many make changes in their behavior or bodies. To keep warm, animals may grow new, thicker fur in the fall.On weasels and snowshoe rabbits, the new fur is white to help them hide in the snow. Food is hard to find in the winter. Some animals, like squirrels, mice, and beavers, gather extra food in the fall and store it to eat later. Animals, like rabbits and deer, spend the winter looking for moss, twigs, bark and leaves to eat. Other animals eat different kinds of food as the seasons change. The red fox eats fruit and insects in the spring, summer, and fall. In the winter, it cannot find these things, so instead it eats small rodents. Animals may find winter shelter in holes in trees or logs, under rocks or leaves, or underground. Some mice even build tunnels through the snow. To try to stay warm, animals like squirrels and mice may huddle close together. Hibernation Some animals hibernate for part or all of the winter. This is a special, very deep sleep. The animal's body temperature drops, and its heartbeat and breathing slow down. It uses very little energy. In the fall, these animals get ready for winter by eating extra food and storing it as body fat. They use this fat for energy while hibernating. Some animals store food like nuts or acorns to eat later in the winter. Bears, skunks, chipmunks, and some bats hibernate. There are different kinds of hibernation. The "true" hibernators sleep so deeply that they are almost impossible to wake up. Woodchucks, ground squirrels and bats are "true" hibernators. A woodchuck's heart rate goes from 80 beats a minute when active to 4 or 5 beats a minute when in hibernation. Its body temperature drops from 98 degrees Fahrenheit to 38 degrees Fahrenheit Bears are not "true" hibernators. They are considered "light sleepers." They are easily awakened from their winter slumbers. These in-between hibernators are simply taking long winter naps. Skunks, raccoons, and opossums are also in this group. These animals breathe a little more slowly and lower their body temperature a few degrees while sleeping, but they wake up to eat between winter snows There are many other animals that hibernate during the winter. Snakes, turtles, and frogs hibernate underground. Since these animals are cold-blooded, they need to find a way to protect themselves from the cold. Frogs and turtles bury themselves in mud in gardens or ponds. They get oxygen from air trapped inside the mud. In the spring when the sun warms the mud, they know that winter has passed. Some snakes head underground to hibernate while others gather together in sheltered places, like rotted out logs. What Do Insects Do in the Winter? When the weather gets colder insects have a hard time flying. They need the sun's warmth. They also can't find food so insects have to adapt. Some will "freeze" for winter, some will nest in a safe place for winter, others will migrate to warmer climates and some will lay their eggs before dying before winter. Ladybugs will huddle together in a dry place to avoid freezing during winter. They will hibernate by resting, breathing slowly and not eating or drinking. A cricket buries her eggs in tiny holes in the ground before winter comes. Wooly Bear Caterpillars will actually freeze solid for winter in a safe place and thaw out and move again in spring. Honeybees will huddle together in their nest. A colony can eat up to a pound of honey each week. They eat throughout the winter to survive. Many ants live in an underground nest during winter to avoid the cold temperatures above ground. They avoid the top "rooms" of their house because it is too cold here. Video on How a Groundhog Hibernates The End!