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Adjectives

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by

Omar Garcia P.

on 20 March 2014

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Transcript of Adjectives

Adjectives
with Suffixes

Adjectives
Participle
Adjectives
Some words ending in –ly can be confused with adverbs, such as :
costly, cowardly, friendly, lively, lonely, lovely, silly, ugly
.

e.g.
She gave me a friendly smile. She smiled in a friendly way

Her singing was lovely.

Daily, weekly, monthly, early and leisurely
are both adjective and adverbs.


It’s a daily paper. It comes out daily.
an early train. I got up early.


ADJECTIVES ending in -ly
Adjectives that are made up
of two or more words,
usually with hyphens between them.

Compound
Adjectives
~Adverb + past participle verb/noun –ed
~Adjective + verb –ing
~Noun + past participle
~Adjective + past participle/noun –ed
~Noun + adjective
~Adjective + noun
~Noun + noun
Compound adjectives
can be formed as follows:
Adverb + past participle/noun –ed
My mother appeared
delighted
with the present.
Jane’s job is boring.

Jane is bored with her job.
~ Adjectives ending in
–ed

To describe how someone feels about something.


The children quickly got bor
ed
with staying indoors.


~ Adjectives ending in
–ing

To describe characteristics of something ( or someone).


The film was disappoint
ing
. I expected it to be much better.


If a person is boring, this means that they make other people bored:

Paul always talks about the same thing. He’s really boring.
Adjective Suffixes
Many adjectives are formed by adding a suffix
to a noun or verb.




Nouns as adjectives
Adverb + verb –ing

A good-looking boy
A well-known writer
Deeply-rooted traditions
A free-standing tower
Noun + past participle
Adjective + past participle/noun -ed
A tongue-tied boy
A sun-dried fruit
A short-sighted man
A long-haired lady
Noun + adjective
Adjective + noun
A world-famous singer

A …
A last-minute solution

A deep-sea diving
Noun + noun
A part-time job

A water-proof suit
Gradable
and Non-gradable adjectives
Verbs acting as adjectives
~ History
~ Race
~ Clothes
~ News
~ Ticket
More than one
In general,
nouns as adjectives are used
in the singular form.
An exception is made
in the case of certain words, like:
* news,
* billiards,
* athletics,
* clothes,
* sports,
* customs,
* accounts,
* arms

Gradable adjectives show
that something can have different degrees.


Gradable Adjectives
Non-Gradable Adjectives

Non-gradable adjectives
do
not
have different degrees.

Non-gradable adjectives
are adjectives like
‘married’
or
‘wooden’...


cold
hot
and frightened
(You can be
 
very cold 
or a
 
bit cold
)
Gradable Adjectives
1) A gradable adjective
can also have comparative and superlative forms:


e.g.
big, bigger, the biggest
hot, hotter, the hottest
important, more important, the most important
Gradable Adjectives
2) A gradable adjective can be used with "grading adverbs"
that vary the adjective's grade or intensity:


Gradable Adjectives
e.g.

"My teacher was very happy with my homework"


"He said that Holland was a little cold and Denmark was rather cold. But Sweden was the coldest".
e.g.

(You can’t be "
very married

or "
a bit married
")
Non-Gradable Adjectives
Non-Gradable Adjectives
Non-Gradable Adjectives
Non-Gradable Adjectives
Non-Gradable Adjectives
Classifying adjectives
: These describe qualities that are completely absent or completely present.
They do not occur in comparative or superlative forms.
 

Examples:

chemical, indoor, married, wooden, pregnant, English, useless, green, nuclear, domestic, digital.

Absolute adjectives


Examples:

dead, impossible, unique, perfect, supreme, final
A
non-gradable adjective
 CANNOT be used
with grading adverbs:





Normally, non-gradable adjectives do NOT have
comparative and superlative forms:

Adverbs used with gradable
and non-gradable adjectives
"Quite"with gradable
and non-gradable adjectives
Types of Adjectives
Attributive
Adjectives in the attributive position
come BEFORE the noun.
They describe, qualify, quantify and classify a noun


e.g.
.
This is a
big
house

.
We have just seen an
extraordinary
film.
. I don't have
enough
money.
. There are several
outdoor
cafés in town
Verbs acting as adjectives
Participle forms of verbs
(usually ending in
-ed
or
-ing
)
can often act as adjectives
She gave me a
welcoming
cup of tea
.
My mother appeared
delighted
with the present
Some participle forms of verbs
can be used on their own
before or after a noun:
Please provide me with a list of the /
selected candidates
/
/
candidates selected
/
Some participle forms can only be used
AFTER a noun
:
before or after a noun

affected chosen identified
infected remaining selected stolen

only after a noun
applying caused discussed found
We can use some Participle adjectives after nouns
in order to identify or define the noun:
A cheer went up from the
crowds
watching
.
We had to pay for the
rooms
used
.
Participle forms after a noun
can be part of a reduced relative clause:
I feel sorry for the people left behind
.
(= the people that are left behind)
When we use present participles (-ing),
these have an active meaning
and past participles have a passive meaning:

I always seem to play for the losing team.
(= the team which is losing)
She found the lost ring under the sofa.

(= the ring which had been lost)
Adjectives after pronouns,
nouns, etc.
Adjectives always come AFTER
indefinite pronouns, e.g. something, anyone:
Some adjectives, including many that end in -able and -ible, can follow a noun after a superlative adjective or after the first/last/next/only:
Adjectives that are followed by a prepositional phrase, e.g. interested in something, suitable for somebody, go after, not before, a noun:
This is similar to a reduced relative clause. We can also use a full relative clause with the adjective in predicative position:
e.g.

The project will appeal to students who are interested in ecology.
Some adjectives have a different meaning when used before or after a noun:
The meeting was full of concerned residents.
(= worried)
The students concerned were a small minority.

(= who took part/were involved)

The present director is American
.
(= current/existing now)
We took a vote of all members present.
(= physically there)

Responsible parents have been outraged by this show.
(= caring conscientious)
The person responsible will be caught and punished.

(= who did the action)

He gave us a ridiculously involved excuse.
(= complicated)
The president gave medals to all those involved.
(= who took part)
Most attributive-only adjectives
belong to the following categories
Adjectives used to intensify meaning: absolute, total, utter, mere, unique, pure, etc.
Adjectives that classify things in a temporal order: present, future, former, latter, previous, late, etc.
"
The

former
governor
did better things for the community.
students need to follow the

previous
information
.
Adjectives with restrictive meaning: only, major,main, principal, sole, etc.

Linking Verbs
Linking verbs do not express action. Instead, they connect the subject of the verb to additional information about the subject.

linking verbs: any form of the verb be [am, is, are, was, were, has been, are being, might have been, etc.], become, and seem.
The following can be linking verbs: appear, feel, grow, look, prove, remain, smell, sound, taste, and turn.
Adjectives that start with “a”
can only be used in the predicative position:

Aware, asleep, afraid, alike, alive, alone, ashamed, alert, awake, etc.
Predicative
Adjectives in the predicative position come AFTER the noun. They function as subject complements or object complements.
Predicate adjectives follow a linking verb.

Your parents
seem
upset

After Mary heard the noise, she
became
very
uneasy.
Some of the adjectives that start with “a”
have equivalent words which can be used before a noun:



Some predicative-only adjectives can function as noun phrase modifiers when the adjective is modified by an adverb or another adjective:
Adjective Order
There are so many adjective categories that SS's - and teachers -
find it difficult to remember...
However, one can remember the order of 11 basic types of adjectives by using a
mnemonic
in Spanish...
Ordering adjectives is complex thing, isn't it?...
But take the initials of these categories and you can call it:

















" l
A S C O S A S C O M P
l e j a s"

The order presented here is the most common and one that is approved by the BBC English (for those interested in ESOL, TOEFL, or CAE examinations)

However, there is not a 100% standard rule in English about the order of adjectives. There isn't a total agreement about the most specfic categories, so you could find lists, teachers, scholars and books that differ in a few points.

Some of the lists differ because they belong to a different variety of English.

Much more specific categories not included here, include participles, season,
temperature and power.



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