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Transcript of ENERGY FLOW
By: Bryan Montoya
IN AN ECOSYSTEM
Food Chains and Webs
Pyramids of Biomass and Numbers
These pyramids show the approximate amount of energy available at each trophic level of a food chain or web.
About 10 percent of the energy from one trophic level is transferred to the next level.
Food Webs and Disturbances
* Energy flows through an ecosystem in a one way stream, from primary producers to various carnivores.
is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating and being eaten.
* food chains vary in length
* Examples are prairie and aquatic ecosystems
* In a prairie ecosystem the primary producer is grass
* In an aquatic ecosystem the primary producer is the algae.
is a network of interactions formed by feeding relationships among various organisms in an ecosystem
is an algae found near the surface of water
* Decomposers and Detritivores are also important in food webs
- A diverse group of small swimming animals
One tenth of this energy, in other words, one percent of the original amount, gets stored in the tissues of humans.
Many things disrupt food webs
For example: An oil spill can cause a major decline in the number of bacteria and fungi that break down detritrus
All of the animals in a food web depend directly or indirectly on a diverse group of small, swimming, animals, called zooplankton
In recent years, krill populations have dropped, along with large amounts of icebergs melting, killing many algae, again affecting the whole food.
The more levels that exist between a producer and a consumer, the smaller the percentage of the original energy from the producers that is available to that consumer.
Ecological pyramids- shows the relative amount of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain or web.
How does energy flow through ecosystems?
What do the three types of ecological pyramids illustrate?
Biomass- The total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level
Biomass is usually measured in grams of organic matter per unit area
This pyramid of biomass illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem
**The number of individuals in each level decreases as you move up the pyramid.
Each step in food chain/food web
illistration of amounts of energy/matter contained within each trophic level in a given food chain/web
Primary Producers always make up the first Trophic Level
Various Consumers occupy the rest of the levels
A pyramid of numbers shows the relative number of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem
Three different type of ecological pyramids: pyramids of energy, pyramids of biomass, pyamids of numbers
Only a small percentage of energy passes through any given trophic level
Organisms expend much of thier energy on life processes