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Victorian Era English
Transcript of Victorian Era English
Crowned Queen of the United Kingdom in 1837, 27 days after her 18th Birthday
Married 1840 to Prince Albert
Husband Passed Away in 1861
Died January 22, 1901 Political Happenings
and Government Canada Gains Independence from Great Britain 1867 American Civil War 1861 -1865 North vs South Women's Movement
1848-1928 The Fight for a Right Social classes People's statuses were based on their education Throughout the 19th Century, Great Britain was Colonizing throughout the world
Canada was one of the many colonies that was under British Rule
Canada sought independence from the British
In 1867 the Constitution Act or BNA act was established, making Canada its own governing country.
British still have representatives in the Canadian government such as the Crown and the Governor General American Civil war took place between northern states and southern states to abolish slavery, Kansas - Nebraska Act: States choose to allow / disallow slavery
North: Believed that slavery was inhumane and wrong, therefore disallowed it
South: Promoted slavery in cotton plantations and Tobacco plantations
1860 Abraham Lincoln. republican president sided with the North against slavery. Fought towards permanently ending slavery.
Throughout all of the fighting and the loss of over 600000 soldiers lives, the South commanded by General Lee surrendered and the war was over. General Grant and the North stood victorious and slavery was Abolished
5 days later John Wilkes Booth assassinated Abraham Lincoln 1800's, women were not allowed the right to vote
Mid 1800's people began to realize that all people should have the right to vote
Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott began to dedicate their life to women's rights
Success: In 1869. Wyoming territory, women were allowed to hold public office for first time. Same year, Elizabeth Stanton and Susan Anthony founded the National Women Suffrage Association
In 1872, organizations started nominating women for presidency
Alberta Famous Five, Emily Murphy, Irene Parlby, Nellie McClung, Louise McKinney and Henrietta Edwards, are major influences in the first push towards the right for women to vote in Canada
This campaign of women's rights, gained more support in the 1900's and finally the 19th amendment was formed on August 18th 1920 and women were given the right to vote. Agriculture Gentleman: A man of good social position, esp. one of wealth and leisure. Lady: A woman of superior social position, esp. one of noble birth: "lords and ladies". Education Very few children went to school Only rich families could affort schooling Men's education was chosen over women's education Poor boys attended ragged schools Poor girls did not attend school Farmers lived a cramped and basic life Children started to help around the farm around the age of 6 Children performed simple tasks such as scaring birds from the crops, and herding animals mechanical tools and steam-powered machines dramatically reduced the workload for farmers Housing Clothes were made to measure specifically for a person Clothing Dancing was very popular in the 1830s Outing and treats Alfred Lord Tennyson Born August 6th, 1809.
Attended trinity college in Cambridge
1842 + continued to spring up in popularity, and it made him a very successful poet
Works: In Memoriam, The passing of Arthur, Ulysses, Tithonus
Passed Away 1892 Elizabeth Barrett Browning •Born March 6th, 1806.
•"Considered among the greatest contributors to English poetry in the 19th Century"
•Enjoyed learning in various fields, Greek, Biblical Hebrew, Classical Literature, Philosophy, History.
•Major Works: The Seraphim, Cowper's Grave, The Cry of the Children, The Drama of Exile, Vision of Poets
•Passed Away June 29th, 1861 Charles Dickens "One of the most highly read authors in Europe, very influential on European Literature at the time"
Born February 7th, 1812.
Works: Oliver Twist (1837), A Christmas Carol (1843), David Copperfield (1849)
Passed Away: June 9th, 1870 Mark Twain Born as "Samuel Langhorne Clemens" on November 30th, 1835.
Famous Works: The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876), The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1885), 28 Books and short stories were written in total.
Passed Away April 21, 1910. Edgar Allen Poe Born January 19th, 1809.
Studied Latin and Poetry at the University of Virginia
Famous Works: The Raven, Eulalie, To Helen, The Fall of the House of Usher.
Passed away October 7th, 1849. Houses in the Victorian era were simple, and as a result, not very comfortable. Houses were built of bricks from Bedfordshire and slate from North Wales. Poor Victorian families had to purchase their clothing from second, third and fourth-hand shops. "Seamstresses" and tailors made clothes that would match the taste of the buyer. Wealthy families taught their children to play a musical instrument, such as the piano Zoos were also of great attraction at the time for families, especially children. Painting, Sculpture, and Graphic Arts Classicism and Neoclassicism - Artists found inspiration from Ancient Greek and Roman art styles
- Also found some inspiration from Christianity
- Ideas from stories from the bible, legends, and mythology John William Waterhouse Romanticism - These paintings often acted as an aesthetic experience for the viewer - Paintings always conveyed a certain emotion
- Often used nature to convey that emotion
-Usual themes were sadness, fear, and apprehension Eugene Delacroix Impressionism - Impressionism began as a rebellion against traditional art and its strict rules.
-Tended to stray away from sadder tones.
-Used lighter colors for paintings
- More experimental than other movements Frederick Bazille Post-impressionism - Post impressionism artists rejected the Impressionist’s interest in the observed world and instead looked inside themselves for ideas of paintings.
- More thought provoking for viewers Vincent Willem van Gogh Music Hall - Music Hall was a very popular type of entertainment and began in 1850
- Had many forms of entertainment: specialty acts, popular song, and variety entertainment
- Began in small bars, where people would go to smoke, drink, and have casual conversation
- People came to urban areas and longed for more entertainment
- The first music hall was built in 1852 (Canterbury Hill) Religion -Christianity was the main faith at the time
- Religion began to lose its power because of growing materialism in the world
- More people were getting educated than before causing people to think more for themselves instead of relying on the Bible Charles Darwin - Darwin was an English Naturalist
- Born in 1802 and Died in 1882
- In 1852 he published "On the Origin of Species"
- It contains compelling evidence that populations evolve from natural selection
- This book overcame previous rejection of earlier ideas of transmutation of species Utilitarianism - Founded by John Stuart Mills and Jeremy Bentham
- Theory on how people should act in order to maximize happiness in all individuals
- Criticized because it ignores justice, predicts consequences that may not happen and Calculating utility is self-defeating Economics The industrial revolution (1760 – 1850)
This was a time of great economic success and growth
England was known as the heart of the industrial boom, which later spread to much of western Europe and the United States
Economy went from one that depended on agriculture and handicraft to one dominated by industry and machine manufacturing
Factory system was largely responsible for the rise of the modern city Economics With the industrial revolution, child labor was apparent
Employers often chose child labor because of significant difference in pay (much lower for children)
working conditions were very poor, it was common for children to work long hours
For ex. child coal miners, mule scavengers
Factory Acts (1833), were laws against child labor
Economics The railroad craze The L&M was the first successful railway
The addition of railways was a major factor in the Victorian era
This railway increased trade and communication
Because of its potential capabilities, investors from all over England invested in the railway
But due to faulty claims and poor business strategies , investors saw a major loss during this time Economics The Victorian era was a time of deflation
The reason for this is because money was directly tied to gold and silver, which is limited to how much you can dig out of the ground
As gold and silver became less common, it became more valuable
The working class made up about 85% of the population
The rich were important because they would often hire lower class citizens carry out jobs in turn stimulating the economy
Technological advancements / inventions / discoveries •The Victorian era is known as the age of progress
1830 The Liverpool and Manchester railway
1837 Samuel Morse invents Morse code, along with Joseph Henry and Alfred Vail to create the first electrical telegraph system
Sewing machine invented by Elias Howe (1846) this played a part in the industrial revolution as it increased production of clothing
•1867 Alfred Nobel develops dynamite
•Mendelyev develops the first version of the periodic table
•1875 Alexander Graham Bell invents the telephone, theres quite abit of controversy between Bell and Elisha Gray
•1885 First automobile from Benz & Cie
•1888 George Eastman develops the Kodak box which captures Technological advancements / inventions / discoveries