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Chapter 6 - Memory

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April M

on 29 September 2012

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Transcript of Chapter 6 - Memory

Memory Processes Type of Long-term
Memory Short-term
Memory Sensory
Memory is a is a is a Iconic
Memory Echoic
Memory type of type of Capacity
Limited is not input to Semantic
Memory Explicit
Memory Implicit
Memory type of of Encoding Storage Retrieval is a is a Schacter's
7 sins of
memory Misattribution Bias Blocking Persistence Absent-
Mindedness Suggestibility Transience Failures types of The ability to store and retrieve information over time The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory The process of maintaining information in memory over time The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored Elaborative
Encoding The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory type of enhances Visual Imagery
Encoding The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures type of A horse of a different color? The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items Organizational
Encoding type of Information considered necessary for survival is better encoded Survival
Encoding Working
Memory a type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less A fast decaying store of visual information A fast decaying store of auditory information This is the reason you can usually tell someone what they just said, even if you weren't really listening, and the reason this guy will be in trouble later. a type of storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds, but less than a minute Rehearsal The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it keeps items in Chunking Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory increases storage of Active maintenance of information in short-term store active maintenance of a type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years Anterograde Amnesia The inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store 50 First Dates As seen in: Retrograde Amnesia The inability to retrieve information that was a acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation As seen in: bringing forth memories from Consolidation Reconsolidation The process by which memories become stable in the brain Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again process of making stable is a Long-term potentiation A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier neuronal process that creates NMDA Receptor A receptor site on the hippocampus that influences the flow of information between neurons controls the initiation of of Forms is a is a External information that helps bring stored information to mind Retrieval cue aids The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded Encoding
specificity principle effective according to The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval State-dependent retrieval People who were happy at the time of learning a list of words, recalled more words when they were happy than when they were sad during a recall test. People who were sad during learning, recalled more words when they were sad at retrieval. example of Refers to
internal contexts
e.g., mood, sobriety,
state of mind, etc. Refers to
external contexts
e.g., room, situation,
atmosphere, etc. The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match Transfer-
appropriate processing If asked to remember the word 'store': Told to think about what the word 'store' meant Told to think about words that rhyme with 'store' Next day What word did you see yesterday? Cue: Memory for word: Good What was that word that rhymed with 'Thor'? Poor What word did you see yesterday? Cue: Memory for word: Poor What was that word that rhymed with 'Thor'? Good predicts the effect of A process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items Retrieval-
induced forgetting may cause is a type of Episodic
Memory Priming type of type of type of Procedural
Memory Facts and general knowledge Personally experienced events Where is the United States Capitol located?

What is a tree? Example: What did you have for lunch yesterday?

What was the most fun you've ever had? Example: With conscious recall Without conscious recall Motor and cognitive skills Playing a musical instrument (or Guitar Hero)

The ability to ride a bike Example: Enhanced identification of objects or words as a result of recent exposure to the stimulus Example: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences The influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection avocado
mystery
climate
octopus
assassin Study these Complete these words then ch_ _ _ _ nk
o_t_p_ _
_og_y_ _ _
_l_m_te Which words did you solve fastest? forgetting what occurs with the passage of time What were you wearing on March 7th, 2005? Example: Retroactive
interference Information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier Proactive
interference Information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later may cause may cause one of A lapse in attention that results in memory failure Prospective memory Remembering to do things in the future failure causes Example: 'I must actually go to class tomorrow because there is an exam' Failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it Assigning recollection or an idea to the wrong source 'OMG, I love your work on 30 Rock!' Source memory Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired Example: Our source memory has failed when we don't realize that we're telling someone a story we've already told them before failure causes False recognition A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before Example: Deja Vu causes The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections Remember when you were at Disneyland and got Bugs Bunny's autograph? Example: The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences When asked, parents frequently say that they are happier because they have kids, even though their previous happiness ratings show they are no more happy or even less happy than when they were childless Example: The intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget Those suffering from post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often plagued by recurring memories of their disturbing experiences during combat Flashbulb memories Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events Example: What were you doing when you heard about the events of 9/11? example of of one of one of one of one of one of one of of Memory Processes Type of Long-term
Memory Short-term
Memory Sensory
Memory is a is a is a Iconic
Memory Echoic
Memory type of type of Capacity
Limited is not input to Semantic
Memory Explicit
Memory Implicit
Memory type of of Encoding Storage Retrieval is a is a Schacter's
7 sins of
memory Misattribution Bias Blocking Persistence Absent-
Mindedness Suggestibility Transience Failures types of The ability to store and retrieve information over time The process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory The process of maintaining information in memory over time The process of bringing to mind information that has been previously encoded and stored Elaborative
Encoding The process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory type of enhances Visual Imagery
Encoding The process of storing new information by converting it into mental pictures type of A horse of a different color? The process of categorizing information according to the relationships among a series of items Organizational
Encoding type of Information considered necessary for survival is better encoded Survival
Encoding Working
Memory a type of storage that holds sensory information for a few seconds or less A fast decaying store of visual information A fast decaying store of auditory information This is the reason you can usually tell someone what they just said, even if you weren't really listening, and the reason this guy will be in trouble later. a type of storage that holds nonsensory information for more than a few seconds, but less than a minute Rehearsal The process of keeping information in short-term memory by mentally repeating it keeps items in Chunking Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory increases storage of Active maintenance of information in short-term store active maintenance of a type of storage that holds information for hours, days, weeks, or years Anterograde Amnesia The inability to transfer new information from the short-term store into the long-term store 50 First Dates As seen in: Retrograde Amnesia The inability to retrieve information that was a acquired before a particular date, usually the date of an injury or operation As seen in: brings forth memories from Consolidation Reconsolidation The process by which memories become stable in the brain Memories can become vulnerable to disruption when they are recalled, requiring them to become consolidated again process of making stable is a Long-term potentiation A process whereby communication across the synapse between neurons strengthens the connection, making further communication easier neuronal process that creates NMDA Receptor A receptor site on the hippocampus that influences the flow of information between neurons controls the initiation of of Forms is a is a External information that helps bring stored information to mind Retrieval cue aids The idea that a retrieval cue can serve as an effective reminder when it helps re-create the specific way in which information was initially encoded Encoding
specificity principle effective according to The tendency for information to be better recalled when the person is in the same state during encoding and retrieval State-dependent retrieval People who were happy at the time of learning a list of words, recalled more words when they were happy than when they were sad during a recall test. People who were sad during learning, recalled more words when they were sad at retrieval. example of Refers to
internal contexts
e.g., mood, sobriety,
state of mind, etc. Refers to
external contexts
e.g., room, situation,
atmosphere, etc. The idea that memory is likely to transfer from one situation to another when the encoding context of the situations match Transfer-
appropriate processing If asked to remember the word 'store': Told to think about what the word 'store' meant Told to think about words that rhyme with 'store' Next day What word did you see yesterday? Cue: Memory for word: Good What was that word that rhymed with 'Thor'? Poor What word did you see yesterday? Cue: Memory for word: Poor What was that word that rhymed with 'Thor'? Good predicts the effect of A process by which retrieving an item from long-term memory impairs subsequent recall of related items Retrieval-
induced forgetting may cause is a type of Episodic
Memory Priming type of type of type of Procedural
Memory Facts and general knowledge Personally experienced events Where is the United States Capitol located?

What is a tree? Example: What did you have for lunch yesterday?

What was the most fun you've ever had? Example: With conscious recall Without conscious recall Motor and cognitive skills Playing a musical instrument (or Guitar Hero)

The ability to ride a bike Example: Enhanced identification of objects or words as a result of recent exposure to the stimulus Example: The act of consciously or intentionally retrieving past experiences The influence of past experiences on later behavior, even without an effort to remember them or an awareness of the recollection avocado
mystery
climate
octopus
assassin Study these Complete these words then ch_ _ _ _ nk
o_t_p_ _
_og_y_ _ _
_l_m_te Which words did you solve fastest? forgetting what occurs with the passage of time What were you wearing on March 7th, 2005? Example: Retroactive
interference Information learned later impairs memory for information acquired earlier Proactive
interference Information learned earlier impairs memory for information acquired later may cause may cause one of A lapse in attention that results in memory failure Prospective memory Remembering to do things in the future failure causes Example: 'I must actually go to class tomorrow because there is an exam' Failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it Assigning recollection or an idea to the wrong source 'OMG, I love your work on 30 Rock!' Source memory Recall of when, where, and how information was acquired Example: Our source memory has failed when we don't realize that we're telling someone a story we've already told them before failure causes False recognition A feeling of familiarity about something that hasn't been encountered before Example: Deja Vu causes The tendency to incorporate misleading information from external sources into personal recollections Remember when you were at Disneyland and got Bugs Bunny's autograph? Example: The distorting influences of present knowledge, beliefs, and feelings on recollection of previous experiences When asked, parents frequently say that they are happier because they have kids, even though their previous happiness ratings show they are no more happy or even less happy than when they were childless Example: The intrusive recollection of events we wish we could forget Those suffering from post- traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are often plagued by recurring memories of their disturbing experiences during combat Flashbulb memories Detailed recollections of when and where we heard about shocking events Example: What were you doing when you heard about the events of 9/11? example of of one of one of one of one of one of one of of My, we're curious, aren't we? stops stops https://docs.google.com/document/pub?id=1dbypOCRPQQ37QzJu7TX82oWp-3bks9OBbtdXN_YMtQc
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