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DC 210 - Coverage, Composition and Editing in Camera

Production I - Introduction to basic cinematographic concepts
by

John Psathas

on 19 January 2015

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Transcript of DC 210 - Coverage, Composition and Editing in Camera

Coverage and Composition Intro
COVERAGE is a cinematography term that refers to shooting a scene from a variety of angles and distances so you will have the raw material necessary to edit the scene together into an interesting visual and emotional experience for the audience. Each of the shots, or individual angles, requires a different SETUP.
ESTABLISHING
MASTER/WIDE
TWO-shot
MEDIUM SHOT
OVER THE SHOULDER
CLOSE UP
INSERT
P.O.V
COMPOSITION
Composition - Your compositions should reflect the emotion of the characters at a given point in the scene and should be used to further comment on the story elements found within the given shot. A composition is not simply the decision to shoot a wide shot, medium, close-up, etc.--your compositions will give your audience information about your characters and comment on their position within the world of the film.
IN CAMERA EDITING
In-camera editing is the technique in filmmaking of shooting your shots in the exact sequence that they will be seen on screen. This means planning in advance what shots will tell the desired story and then shooting only those shots in that order, as opposed to the usual filmmaking technique of shooting multiple takes out of sequence, then editing them into order to tell the story

You will be shooting for the edit. This means that you will shoot the film out of sequence with the plan to edit them together in post-production.

Things that will affect the look and feel of your shots:
EXPOSURE
POSITIONING
LIGHTING
IRIS - F-stop
Shutter Speed
Film speed or ISO rating
Positioning of actors
objects in the frame
movement of the camera
KEy
COntrast
Color
CAMERA ANGLES
Bird's Eye View
High above
Omnipotent perspective
Flattens image
DUTCH or OBLIQUE ANGLE
Frame is tilted
Could indicate something isn't right within world of film
Expands the frame
POV - Point of View
Not pictured
Reflects a particular characters perspective--we see what they see
Usually medium to wide to mimic field of view
LIGHTING
High Angle
Takes away power from subject
Focus attention downward
We are "bigger" than the subject
Low Angle
"Hero Shot"
Gives power to our subject
Subject looking down on us
Tall vs. Short
Eye Level
Direct address
Even with character
We are equals with the subject
HIGH KEY/LOW CONTRAST
LOW KEY/High CONTRAST
HIGH KEY/LOW CONTRAST
LOW KEY/High CONTRAST
Saturated Colors
Fully Desaturated Colors
Moderate Saturation
Saturated, Shift toward blue
CONCLUSION
FILM IS A VISUAL MEDIUM
WE ARE TELLING STORIES THROUGH IMAGES
your imagery should reflect the tone, feel and emotion of the scene and characters
MAKE IT LOOK LIKE A MOVIE!
A couple terms:

"Low-key" lighting often uses only one key light, optionally controlled with a fill light or a simple reflector. The term "low key" is used in cinematography to refer to any scene with a high lighting ratio, especially if there is a predominance of shadowy areas. It tends to heighten the sense of alienation felt by the viewer, hence is commonly used in film noir and horror genres.

"High key" lighting is usually quite homogeneous and free from dark shadows.High-key lighting found its use in classical Hollywood cinema because it was well suited for three-point lighting and other filmmaking traditions. It is an overall lighting design which uses the fill light and backlight to create low contrast between brighter and darker areas. It can be used for both daylight and night scenes.
RULE OF THIRDS
180 RULE
Full transcript