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Structure of the Hydrosphere

Freshwater to Salt Water Locations and Charateristics
by

Teika Clavell

on 21 January 2014

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Transcript of Structure of the Hydrosphere

The ocean levels are categorized in 3 main zones; Intertidal, Neritic, and Benthic. There is also a deep ocean zone called the Abyssal zone.
Currents are the directed continuous movement of water. Currents are caused by many forces such as winds, gravity from the moon, water density, temperature, and the Earth's rotation.
Special Areas
There are several areas of the water that have special features.
Ocean Zones
Currents
Structure of the Hydrosphere
Upwelling & Downwelling
Upwelling & downwelling are processes of Earth's currents. Upwelling brings cold water from the deep towards the surface. Down welling occurs when the warm surface water from the upwelling collects and is pushes the colder water beneath back down.
Artesian Wells & Aquifiers
Different Layers, Different Characteristics
This zone is underwater during high tide and exposed during low tide. Due to the constant bombardment of waves, this is a difficult place to live.
Higher Density
Lower Density
Salinity
It's difficult to understand what role salinity plays in the ocean without understanding density
These are the factors that contribute to ocean water being less dense.
Low Salinity Levels
High Temperatures
High Precipitation + Low Evaporation = Low Density
High Evaporation + Low Rainfall = High Density
Low Salinity
+
High Temperature
=
? Density
These are the factors that contribute to ocean water being more dense.
High Salinity Levels
Lower Temperatures
Freshwater
Brackish (combination of salty and freshwater
Salt water
An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water along the coast where freshwater from rivers and streams meets and mixes with water from the ocean.
An aquifer is a layer of rock that collects and stores water. Water from an aquifer must be pumped out.

An Artesian well however needs no such pumping. An Artesian well is an under ground water supply that naturally comes to the surface from pressure.
The Neritic Zone receives light; it extends to about 200 meters. Most of the productivity is located in this zone.
The Benthic Zone is a combination of the lowest level of water and the top layer on sediment on the ocean floor; often comprising of high pressures, low oxygen levels, no light, and extremely cold temperatures.
Tides
Tides are the the alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and sun. The gravitational pull of the moon & son play a huge part on the tidal forces that affect the oceans on Earth.
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