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Structure of the Hydrosphere
Transcript of Structure of the Hydrosphere
Currents are the directed continuous movement of water. Currents are caused by many forces such as winds, gravity from the moon, water density, temperature, and the Earth's rotation.
There are several areas of the water that have special features.
Structure of the Hydrosphere
Upwelling & Downwelling
Upwelling & downwelling are processes of Earth's currents. Upwelling brings cold water from the deep towards the surface. Down welling occurs when the warm surface water from the upwelling collects and is pushes the colder water beneath back down.
Artesian Wells & Aquifiers
Different Layers, Different Characteristics
This zone is underwater during high tide and exposed during low tide. Due to the constant bombardment of waves, this is a difficult place to live.
It's difficult to understand what role salinity plays in the ocean without understanding density
These are the factors that contribute to ocean water being less dense.
Low Salinity Levels
High Precipitation + Low Evaporation = Low Density
High Evaporation + Low Rainfall = High Density
These are the factors that contribute to ocean water being more dense.
High Salinity Levels
Brackish (combination of salty and freshwater
An estuary is a partially enclosed body of water along the coast where freshwater from rivers and streams meets and mixes with water from the ocean.
An aquifer is a layer of rock that collects and stores water. Water from an aquifer must be pumped out.
An Artesian well however needs no such pumping. An Artesian well is an under ground water supply that naturally comes to the surface from pressure.
The Neritic Zone receives light; it extends to about 200 meters. Most of the productivity is located in this zone.
The Benthic Zone is a combination of the lowest level of water and the top layer on sediment on the ocean floor; often comprising of high pressures, low oxygen levels, no light, and extremely cold temperatures.
Tides are the the alternate rising and falling of the sea, usually twice in each lunar day at a particular place, due to the attraction of the moon and sun. The gravitational pull of the moon & son play a huge part on the tidal forces that affect the oceans on Earth.