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The advantages of the Scientific Method

A level psychology WJEC
by

Mikaela Johnston

on 9 December 2012

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Transcript of The advantages of the Scientific Method

The Scientific Method Second Advantage Third Advantage It is possible to standardise procedures therefore making replication of research easier. The scientific method is where a psychologist observes an aspect of the universe and creates a hypothesis which is consistent with their observation. They then make predictions about behaviour using their hypothesis. The prediction is then tested through the use of experiments and further observations and the hypothesis is modified to coincide with the results. The modified hypothesis is then used to make predictions about behaviour which is also tested and modified, once predictions and tests are consistent a theory can be created. High levels of control are possible meaning there is less interference from confounding variables The use of specialised equipment which allows quantitative data to be gathered and analysed which leads to a greater level of objectivity. Fourth Advantage Psychologist observes an aspect of the universe
Creates a hypothesis consistent with the observation
Make predictions about behaviour using the hypothesis
Prediction is tested through experiments and further observations
Hypothesis is then modified to coincide with the results
The modified hypothesis is used to make predictions about behaviour
This is then tested and modified
Once predictions and tests are consistent a theory can be created First Advantage It is easy to predict behaviour which enables theories and hypthesis to be created tested and falsified Pavlov predicted that behaviour can be conditioned in response to a specific stimulus. He tested this using a controlled observation where his dogs associated a bell ringing wityh being fed, he therefore condiotioned the response of salvating when the bell was rung. He then created the theory of classical conditioning. This is an advantage of the scientific method as it shows clearly how a prediction was tested allowing a theory to be created. This is an advantage of the scientific method over non-scientific methods such as a natural observation as it is difficult to replicate research and therefore difficult to falsify a hypothesis and create a theory. Easy to predict behaviour enables theories + hypothesis to be created tested and falsified. Pavlov clearly shows how a prediction was tested allowing a thoery to be created This is an advantage over other non-scienntific methods such as a natural observation as it is difficult to replicate research and so difficult to falsify a hypothesis and create a theory Asch investigated whether people are subject to social pressure and if they would conform when posed with an obviously incorrect response. He controlled where the naive participant sat, that they saw and the conferderates responses. This is an advantage of the scientific method as it means there is a greater liklihood of accurately establishing cause and effect. The independant variable such as social pressure is fully operationalised, This is an advantage of the scientific method over non-scientific methods such as a field experiment as you cant control variables in a natural envirionment. High levels of control are possible so there is less interference from confounding variable Asch An advantage of the scientific method as it means theres is a greater liklihood of establishing cause and effect. The IV such as social pressure is fully operationalised. This is an advantage over other non-scientific methods such as a field experiment as you cannot control variables in a natural environment. Gibson and Walk used specialised equipment such as the visual cliff, this was used to test whether animal infants could percieve depth. This is an advantage of the scientific method because it is less likely for findings to be effected by experimenter expectancy and bias. This is an advantage of the scientif method over non-scientific methods such as a natural observation as it would be impractical to use such equipmentwhich may lead to finding not being objective. Specialised equipment allows quantitative data to be gathered and analysed which leads to a greater level of objectivity Gibson and Walk This is an advantage of the scientific method because it it less likely for findings to be effected by experimenter expectancy and bias. This is an advantage of the scientific method overn non-scientific methods such as a natural observation where it would be impractical to use such equipment therefore findings are less likely to be objective Milgram followed set procedures when he conducted his research, all participants were given the same verbal prods and told the experiment was about memory and learning This is an advantage of the scientific method as it is easier to test reliablility of data and there conclusions meaning results can be analysed and be proved to show consistency. This is an advantage of the scientific method over non-scientific methods such as a case study because they are uniquw to a specific person meaning all cases would be different making it difficult to use standardised procedures. In conclusion the major advantage of the scientific method is that the data it collects is empirical. The information is gained through direct observations and experiments. This is an advantage as it allows psychologists to make claims about the truth of the theory. This is an advantage over other non-scientific methods that are based on subjective arguments and unfalsified beliefs.
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