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Influences on Child and Adolescent Health- Parental and School Influence

January 16th, 2013

Kim Hartzler-Weakley

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Influences on Child and Adolescent Health- Parental and School Influence

To increase parent engagement in school health, schools must make a positive connection with parents.

Schools should also provide a variety of activities and frequent opportunities to fully engage parents.

Schools can sustain parent engagement by addressing the common challenges to getting and keeping parents engaged. Connect-Engage-Sustain How can school staff increase parent engagement in school health? Parent engagement in schools can promote positive health behaviors among children and adolescents.
students who feel supported by their parents are less likely to experience emotional distress, practice unhealthy eating behaviors, consider or attempt suicide, or disengage from school and learning.

In addition, school efforts to promote health among students have been shown to be more successful when parents are involved.
studies have shown that when parents volunteer at their children’s school, the likelihood of their children initiating smoking decreases, and the likelihood of their children meeting the guidelines for physical activity increases.

In addition, interventions with a parent engagement component have been shown to increase positive health behaviors such as children’s school-related physical activity. Parent Engagement Parent engagement in schools
parents and schools working together to enhance and improve the development of children and adolescents.

Parent engagement in schools is a shared responsibility in which schools and other community agencies and organizations are committed to reaching out to engage parents in meaningful ways, and parents are committed to actively supporting their children’s and adolescents’ learning and development.

This relationship between schools and parents cuts across and reinforces children’s health and learning in the multiple settings—at home, in school, in out-of-school programs, and in the community Parent Engagement 1. Create decision-making processes that facilitate student, family, and community engagement; academic achievement; and staff empowerment.

2. Provide education and opportunities to enable families to be actively involved in their children’s academic and school life.

3. Provide students with the academic, emotional, and social skills necessary to be actively engaged in school.

4. Use effective classroom management and teaching methods to foster a positive learning environment.

5. Provide professional development and support for teachers and other school staff to enable them to meet the diverse cognitive, emotional, and social needs of children and adolescents.

6. Create trusting and caring relationships that promote open communication among administrators, teachers, staff, students, families, and communities. Six Strategies to Promote School Connectedness What Are the Factors that Can Increase School Connectedness?

Adult Support: School staff can dedicate their time, interest, attention, and emotional support to students.

Belonging to a Positive Peer Group: A stable network of peers can improve student perceptions of school.

Commitment to Education: Believing that school is important to their future, and perceiving that the adults in school are invested in their education, can get students engaged in their own learning and involved in school activities.

School Environment: The physical environment and psychosocial climate can set the stage for positive student perceptions of school. School Connectedness Research has also demonstrated a strong relationship between school connectedness and educational outcomes, including school attendance; staying in school longer; and higher grades and classroom test scores.

In turn, students who do well academically are less likely to engage in risky behaviors.

Compared with students with low grades, students with higher grades are significantly less likely to carry a weapon, smoke cigarettes, drink alcohol, and have sexual intercourse. Why is School Connectedness Important? Students are more likely to engage in healthy behaviors and succeed academically when they feel connected to school. Why is School Connectedness Important? Risk Factors are individual or environmental characteristics, conditions, or behaviors that increase the likelihood that a negative outcome will occur.

Protective Factors are individual or environmental characteristics, conditions, or behaviors that reduce the effects of stressful life events; increase an individual’s ability to avoid risks or hazards; and promote social and emotional competence to thrive in all aspects of life now and in the future.

School Connectedness is the belief by students that adults and peers in the school care about their learning as well as about them as individuals. School Connectedness Adolescent girls report higher levels of parental awareness and monitoring than do adolescent boys.

Teens of both sexes who report higher levels of parental awareness were less likely to have had sexual intercourse before age 16, even when controlling for other background characteristics.

Teen boys who report having dinner with their family every day were less likely to have had sex before age 16, compared with those who report they eat dinner with their family less than five nights a week, even after controlling for other background factors.

Programs designed to delay teen sexual activity and to deter other risky behaviors may benefit from including or enhancing parental involvement in their offerings. Parents Matter: The Role of Parents in Teens’ Decisions About Sex
(Ikramullah, et al., 2009) Parents have more influence than they think on their adolescents’ decisions about sex.

Adolescent girls report better relationships with their mothers, on average , compared with adolescent boys, while adolescent boys tend to report better relationships with their fathers than do adolescent girls.

Higher levels of parent-adolescent relationship quality are associated with reduced risk of early sexual experience among teen girls, even after taking account of other background factors.

Positive relationships with both parents in adolescence are associated with lower levels of early sexual activity among teen girls. Parents Matter: The Role of Parents in Teens’ Decisions About Sex
(Ikramullah, et al., 2009) Teen guys and girls are divided on who serves as their relationship role models.

Teen girls (35%) are more likely to say that their parents serve as an example of a healthy relationship than other family members, friends, faith leaders, or other adults.

Guys, however, are most likely to say that their friends are role models of good relationships. Kiss and Tell- Role Models Who influences you most when it comes to your dating relationships?
Parents = 35%
Friends = 28%
The media = 4%
Siblings = 4%
Religious leader/Faith community = 3%
Boyfriend or girlfriend = 2%
Other family member = 2%

Teens—both guys and girls—say that parents most influence their decisions about dating and relationships.

There is, however, a gender divide on the topic of parental influence: teen girls (40%) are much more likely than teen guys (30%) to say that parents most influence their dating relationships. Kiss and Tell- Relationship Influence Create programs:
aimed at helping parents set appropriate limits, improve communication skills, increase communication, encouraging good behavior, improve the quality of their relationships, increase problem-solving skills, how to handle conflict, and how to access community resources
Meet with adolescents at the same time- workshops on goal-setting, appreciating parents, and how to deal with peer pressure and stress.
Together, parents and adolescents met to discuss conflict resolution and family values.
Also, programs that promote healthy behaviors for all family members show promising potential for reducing negative adolescent health behaviors.

By promoting clear messages of the importance of healthy behaviors, parents can reduce the likelihood of their adolescents engaging in risky behaviors. The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) The family environment can be a strong source of support:
providing close relationships, strong parenting skills, good communication, and modeling positive behaviors.

It can also be a problematic environment when those supports are lacking, or when negative adult behaviors like smoking and heavy drinking are present.

Fortunately, the evidence indicates that most adolescents enjoy healthy family environments:
with large majorities reporting the capacity to talk with mothers about things that really bother them (68%),
parents who know who their child’s friends are (80%),
know where their child is after school (88%), and
who do not smoke (79%) or
drink heavily (well over 90%), and
who report very close relationships with their adolescents (79%). The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) Parents’ health-related behaviors can affect adolescent well-being in several ways
including providing positive (or negative) role models and
by contributing to healthy or unhealthy physical and social environments.

Parental habits can also shape adolescent health behaviors
by increasing easy access to cigarettes or alcohol in the home, or,
on the positive side, increasing access to healthy foods. The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) Family Meals
Family meals serve as an important time for teens to communicate with and spend time with their parents.

Associated with:
less substance use, delinquency, depressive symptoms, and suicide attempts, and with better grades and academic performance.

Adolescents who eat meals regularly with their parents are also more likely:
to eat fruits, vegetables, and dairy foods and less likely to skip breakfast.

More frequent family meals, a more structured family meal environment, and a positive atmosphere at family meals are associated with a lower likelihood of disordered eating. The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) Parental monitoring when combined with parental support, have been shown to be positively related to:
higher adolescent self-esteem,
higher GPAs in school,
greater academic success,
fewer internalizing behaviors, such as withdrawal and depression, and
externalizing behavior problems, such as fighting and disturbing others,
as well as a lower likelihood of drinking, smoking, and engaging in other risky behaviors. The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) Parental monitoring includes
1) the expectations parents have for their teen’s behavior;
2) the actions parents take to keep track of their teen; and
3) the ways parents respond when their teen breaks the rules.

Asking things like:
Where will you be? ...
Whom will you be with?...
When will you be home? …

Doing things like:
Check in with your teen by phone...
Get to know his or her friends and their parents...
Talk with your teen about how he or she spends time or whether ...is your teen making safe choices?
Set and enforce rules for your teen’s behavior by clearly ...explaining the rules and consequences and following through with appropriate consequences when the rules are broken. What is parental monitoring? Over three-quarters of all parents report very close relationships with their adolescent children.

Many 15-year-olds report difficulty talking with their mothers and fathers about things that really bother them. Adolescents who report difficulty talking with their parents are more likely to drink alcohol frequently, have problems with binge drinking, smoke and feel unhappy (especially girls).

Adolescents who live with two parents are more likely to have parents who know their whereabouts after school.

Hispanic parents are less likely than white and black parents to know who most of their adolescent’s friends are.

Foreign-born adolescents are more likely than their native-born peers to eat meals with their family.

Adolescents with better-educated parents are less likely to be exposed to smoking and heavy drinking by their parents.

Adolescents whose parents exercise are less likely to be sedentary themselves. The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) By action and by example, parents shape the lives of their children from birth through adulthood.

In adolescence, the influence of friends and peers take on greater importance, but research clearly demonstrates the continued significance of parents in shaping the behaviors and choices of teens as they face the challenges of growing up.

Close parent/adolescent relationships, good parenting skills, shared family activities and positive parent role modeling all have well-documented effects on adolescent health and development. The Family Environment and Adolescent Well-being: Exposure to Positive and Negative Family Influences (Aufseeser, Jekielek, & Brown, 2006) Parental and School Influences Influences on Child and Adolescent Health The majority of teens (51% of guys and 53% of girls) believe that parents should start talking with their kids about sex, love, and relationships when their kids are 13 or 14

But almost one-third (27% of guys and 30% of girls) say the conversation should start even earlier—at age 12 or younger.

In fact, almost one in seven teens have sex before age 15, so having a strong history of communicating about appropriate relationships, love, and sex is important.

And, in fact, most teens say it would be easier for them to delay sex and avoid pregnancy if they were able to have more open, honest conversations about these topics with their parents. Kiss and Tell- When Should the Conversations Start? In this same study, school connectedness was second in importance, after family connectedness, as a protective factor against emotional distress, disordered eating, and suicidal ideation and attempts. School connectedness was found to be the strongest protective factor for both boys and girls to decrease substance use, school absenteeism, early sexual initiation, violence, and risk of unintentional injury (e.g., drinking and driving, not wearing seat belts). The study found that family, school, and individual factors such as school connectedness, parent-family connectedness, high parental expectations for academic achievement, and the adolescent’s level of involvement in religious activities and perceived importance of religion and prayer were protective against a range of adverse behaviors. The National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health looked at the impact of protective factors on adolescent health and well-being among more than 36,000 7th–12th grade students. Studies- Group Activity Parenatal Influences on Adolescents' Physical Activity and Secretary Behavior
(Bauer, et al., 2008) Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Patterns
(Gorden-Larsen & Nelson) Dynamic Association (Yang, 2007) Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Perceived Family, Peer, and School Relations: Commonalities & Differences Across Race/Ethnicity
(Denise, et al., 2007) Bicycle Helmet use Among School Children
(Berg & Westerley) Understanding the Dimensions of Parental Influence on Alcohol Use (Clark & Ngogen, 2011) Influences of Parenting Practices on the Risk of Having a change to try Cannabis (Anthony, Chen & Storr, 2005) KIM- stop here KIM- start here
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