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Harold Clayton Urey
Transcript of Harold Clayton Urey
University of Montana, instructor in chemistry Johns Hopkins University, associate in chemistry Columbia University, associate professor of chemistry, 1929-34; Ernest Kempton Adams Fellow, 1933-36; professor of chemistry, 1934-45; executive officer, Department of Chemistry, 1939-42; director of war research, SAM Laboratories, 1940-45 Journal of Chemical Physics, editor University of Chicago, Institute for Nuclear Studies: Distinguished Service Professor of Chemistry, 1945-52; Martin A. Ryerson Distinguished Service Professor of Chemistry, 1952-58 Oxford University, George Eastman Visiting Professor
University of California, San Diego, professor of chemistry-at-large Born in Walkerton, Indiana on April 29, 1893 — died in La Jolla, California on January 5, 1981 Early Influences Urey was influenced while studying at the colleges and universities-as he explored different subjects of Chemistry and Science his interests were cultivated.For example :At the University of Chicago, the two postwar events dramatically altered the focus of his research.
He usually wrote books or experimented with things in response to articles or reviews that he had read and wanted to prove wrong.
Urey worked in several research programs which helped him revise his theories. His basic life 1914-17 1921-23 1923-24 1911-14 1918-19 1919-21 1924-29 1929-36 1933-40 1945-58 1956-57 1958-70 He was the son of Rev. Samuel Clayton Urey and Cora Rebecca Reinoehl.
Urey was married to a bacteriologist, Frieda Daum, on June 12, 1926.
Urey had four children named Gertrude Elizabeth Baranger, Frieda Rebecca Brown, Mary Alice Lorey, and John Clayton Urey.
Hobbies: Gardening and raising orchids (cattleya, cymbidium, and others) Contemporaries Some of Urey's contemporaries included those who studied with him and those who he studied under to become a Professor.
Like: Arthur E. Ruark, George Eastman, Martin A. Ryerson, Gilbert N. Lewis, E.W. Washburn Major Accomplishments Urey and E.W. Washburn together evolved the electrolytic method for the separation of hydrogen isotopes and he carried out through investigations of their properties, in particular the vapor pressure of hydrogen and deuterium, and the equilibrium constants of exchange reactions. Urey started to work on the separation of uranium isotopes Urey was active in the U.S government’s program for separating the fissionable uranium isotope from the more abundant for the atomic bomb during World War II. Urey was even the one who tried to convince U.S President Harry S. Truman not to drop the bomb on Japan. Theories about the Earth Urey rejected the hypothesis that the Moon and Earth had a common origin, believing instead that the Moon arose independently.
He said that the moon was older than the Earth, and was later captured by the Earth.
He argued that the Moon would provide people the clues about the early solar system that the Earth could not.
Urey proposed bold hypotheses about the origin of the solar system, arguing that the planets had formed at relatively low temperatures where chemical and molecular processes rather than atomic processes would dominate Experiments The Miller- Urey experiment showed that organic compounds like amino acids, which are necessary for cellular life, could easily be formed under such conditions.-basic building blocks of life- His discovery of deuterium and work on isotope chemistry, isotope separation, isotope geology, and cosmochemistry made him significant in science A scientist whose interests, accomplishments, and influence spanned the disciplines of chemistry, astronomy, astrophysics, geology, geophysics, and biology His ideas about the Earth led to debates and were able to influence the U.S National Aeronautics and Space Administration in undertaking the Apollo program of lunar exploration. Awards · Nobel Prize for Chemistry, 1934;
· The Willard Gibbs Medal (American Chemical Society) in 1934;
· Davy Medal (Royal Society, London), 1940;
· Franklin Medal, 1943;
· Medal for Merit, 1946;
· Cordoza Award, 1954;
· Honor Scroll Award (American Institute of Chemists), 1954;
· Joseph Priestley Award, 1955;
· Alexander Hamilton Award, 1961;
· The J. Lawrence Smith Award ( National Academy of Sciences), 1962.
He received honorary doctor of science degrees from Montana, Princeton, Newark, Columbia, Oxford, Washington and Lee, McMaster, Yale, Indiana, Birmingham Universities, and the Universities of Athens, Durham, and Saskatchewan; also honorary doctor of law degrees from Wayne University and the University of California. He also wrote the books-Atoms, Molecules and Quanta and The Planets. He also wrote numerous papers.