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Jazz Music Presentation
Transcript of Jazz Music Presentation
It was a combination of blues and ragtime
Origins of the African slaves
Origins from New Orleans
Spelt as “jas”, “jass”, and “jazz”
Came from and African influence. Link to dance, an emphasis on rhythm, a structure on call and response, improvisation, vocal sounds to instruments use of riffs; was passed orally
Cheerful and exuberant. Found across the world (Europe, Africa, North America)
Jazz musicians left the city and this style of music up North and to West California spread across the nation
Cultural re-enforcement in the US
Starting Big Band (1930’s) after and during WW2; Louis Armstrong. When he went to New York, Big Band evolved
First jazz records were made in 1917 “Put it this way. Jazz is a good barometer of freedom... In its beginnings, the United States of America spawned certain ideals of freedom and independence through which, eventually, jazz was evolved, and the music is so free that many people say it is the only unhampered, unhindered expressions of complete freedom yet produced in this country.” - Duke Ellington From the very beginning, jazz has been about freedom, movement and individual expression. It demonstrated the musical tradition and emphasis on improvisation to cultural changes. The Birth of Jazz What Jazz Influenced and the Culture during the Era ... •The evolution of poetry and jazz music formed the genre of jazz poetry. The earliest poets were labeled as “jazz poets” and it referred to jazz music in their workings. Langston Hughes was the first true jazz poet.
•The whites and blacks were still in conflict at this time, but slowly attempting to resolve it.
•Different styles of dances were invented: the Charleston and the Shimmy. Youth did this to prove that they are more reckless by throwing their arms and legs everywhere. Before this reckless way of dancing, people were concerned about dance etiquette, dancing the tango, waltz, and foxtrot.
•Prohibition occurred (alcohol was illegal) through the 1920’s, jazz music was mainly played in underground clubs, called “speakeasies”. From there, jazz initially drag the label of “low culture”.
•From the Jazz Age of 1920’s through the swing era of the 1930’s and 40’s, jazz was the most listened genre towards youth culture.
•Jazz occurred after WW1 and so everyone struggled to renew their lives, but soon after great successes with the economy and technology was developed. Examples such as the Henry Ford automobile, toasters, vacuums and the refrigerator. •Jazz music caused flapper women, who dressed more provocatively, showed more skin, wore shorter dresses and wore brighter colors. They also wore their hair shorter because it symbolized that they can be seen as equal to men. Instruments •In modern Jazz, the bass keeps the tempo, the piano and drums usually accompany them. Trumpets and saxophone keep melody too
•Depending on the genre or style of Jazz, they all had different ways of distinctions themselves.
•Cool Jazz put in the french horn, flute, and flugelhorn
Henderson composed the full ensemble with :
-A brass section with 3 trumpets and 2 trombone; Glenn Miller and Tommy Dorsey.
-A reed section with 3 or 4 saxophones (doubling as clarinet players as well) Artie Show, and Benny Goodman (made clarinet popular for Jazz).
-A rhythm section with drums, piano, guitar and double bass. “Stride Piano”: (Eubie Blake, James P. Johnson, Earl Hines) it was on oom-pah rhythm and most commonly known and used instruments in Jazz. The Rise of the Saxophone: also popular for its unique sound. Charlie Parker and Lesser Young ( two of the best known saxophonists in the world of Jazz). It is the preferred instruments for solo Jazz work. They had beauty, technical wizardry, and improve creativity. Syncopation •Jazz was played with a lot of accents and staccatos on the off beat.
•Usually jazz pieces are played with big transitioning dynamics either soft or loud being transitioned quickly
•Sometimes you can only hear fort as the main dynamic, but great artist can articulate with mezzo piano just as much as mezzo fort Musical Structure •You must know the harmonies to chords for better improve or “jam sessions”.
•Many were in the basic 32-bar length. This was due to having improve sections for 32 bars.
•The 32-Bar Song Form: It takes the formation AABA form , and B acting as a bridge and A and B are each 8 bars
•The ‘Call and Response’ This plays in with instrumental Jazz improve.
•Jazz is polyrhythmic: two or more different rhythms. Cross rhythms and accents are what makes the Jazz piece.
•Dorian mode was found common in a piece. It is when a scaled is played as a pattern of W-H-W-W-H-W (made by Miles Davis, trumpet player) Styles of Jazz 1. Ragtime •1895
•Ragtime plus blues equals the origins of jazz
•Musical heritage from Africa
•Music of the jig bands and coon songs: these evolved into Ragtime
•Ragtime is vibrant and enthusiastic
•Syncopation means a variety of rhythms which unexpectedly create a piece of music
•Example: Scott Joplin- "Mapleleaf Rag" 2.Classical Jazz •Began in 1900s
•Started with a small band
•It originated in New Orleans and is sometimes mistakenly named Dixieland
•Dixieland jazz were variations of white performers revival of the style
•Instruments of classical jazz included clarinet, saxophone, cornet, trombone, tuba, bass, guitar, drums and occasionally piano
•Used Jazz improvisation 3. Hot Jazz •In 1925 Louis Armstrong recorded his first hot jazz
•Based on improvised solos
•Melody like structure
•Had an emotional or hot climax =crescendo
•Originated by African-American musicians from New York
•About creative expression
•An influential hot jazz performer was Charlie Parker 4. Chicago Style •Chicago was A place for many young invented players to create music
•Harmonic arrangements that were innovative
•Usually players of high technical ability were able to play Chicago style
•Influential Chicago style artists were Benny Goodman, Bud Freeman and Eddie Codon
Example: Benny Goodman- Sing sing sing 5. Swing •1930s
•This time most of Jazz groups where big band
•Swing originated from New Orleans style Jazz
•Swing is said to be robust and invigorating
•Improvisations were very complex at times having melodic and thematic solos
•Example of modern-day swing is the jitterbug
•An influential swing artist was Ella Fitzgerald
Example: Ella Fitzgerald- It Don't Mean a Thing 6.Vocalese •Vocalese jazz is a series of lyrics composing designed to be sung in the same timing and away as instrumental solos
•Reached its most important high points in 1957 to 67
•Sung as solos or ensembles
•Solos and ensembles were supported by small groups or large orchestras
•Vocalese never brought large commercial success to the media
Example: Frank Sinatra- Fly Me to the Moon 7. Bossa nova •Originated from a Brazilian group in the United States in 1962
•Seductive Samba rhythms and classic harmonies
•The correct name for bossa nova is Brazilian jazz
•The Bossa Nova uses simple melodies that is played or sung in Portuguese, English or both
•Example: The girl from panema 1964- Gilberto Gil
•Hypnotic acoustic melody 8. Modal Jazz •Later 1950s early 60s
•Uses a scale or "mode" as the base structure of the song and the rest is improvised on top
•The soloist of the band creates a melody using a small number of modes
•The emphasis in this form is harmonies instead of harmonies is melodies
•Miles Davis recorded the best-selling jazz album of all time from the modal era
Example: Miles Davis - "The Theme" 9. Free Jazz •Another word for free jazz is avante garde
•There is no structured band arrangement
•Supposed to provide a "free" feeling experience to the music
•John Coltrane is an example of a Free Jazz artist
•Because its such a free and improvised form of jazz some believe it doesn't even qualify as music
•Even when it was known it was mostly underground music
•This form of jazz was mostly ignored but it influences a lot of mainstream music today 10. Soul Jazz •Soul Jazz help the development of hard bop
•Includes repetitive grooves and melodic hooks
•Sold dad has strong influences from blues and gospel music. The improvisations of soul
•Jazz were less complex since it was very slow and soulful
•A popular soul jazz artist was Horace Silver- he had funky gospel based piano
•This style of jazz is the most popular style in the late 60s
•The performances of soul jazz were normally exciting because there's so much emotion put into performances
•Lyrics were based on real-life situations and strong feelings
•Soul jazz uses a strong baseline
•And a rhythmic slow groove
Example: Ray Charles- Moanin' 11. Groove Jazz •Rhythm or feel of swing music
•In this type of jazz the band interacts with each other and plays off of each other's rhythm sections
•Is type of jazz makes one want to dance or "groove" 12. Fusion Jazz •Originate in the early 1970s
•Includes improvisation and the energy of rock music
•Started the evolution of rock
Example: Joe Zawinul- In a silent way 13. Afro Cuban •Mid-1940s
•Afro Cubans second name is Latin jazz
•Uses the infectious rhythms of Latin music
•It's roots are your South and Central America
•African Cuban jazz uses a wide range of instruments including a lot if Latin sounding percussion
•It was centered around its rhythmic representation
•Modal ensembles were generally smaller
•Pancho sanchez - besame mama 14. Post Bop •Started in the 1960s and was re invented in the 1970s
•Has the elements of avant-garde jazz with Polyphonic beats from Caribbean influences
•Because Post bop Is so altered it is hard to be associated with historical jazz 15. Smooth Jazz •Evolved from jazz fusion
•Some argue whether jazz truly applies in this form
•Is a polished or slick form of jazz
•Uses high-tech syncopation and dynamic decrescendos
•There are no energetic solos it is a large ensemble instead
•Instruments that are used are electric keyboards alto saxophone soprano saxophone guitar bass percussion instruments
•Is considered one of the most commercially valuable types of jazz swing era 16. Jazz Rap •Late 1980s to 1990s
•Leading into hip hop
•Roots african music+modern day music
•Lyrics were written about social and political situations of the time
•Occasionally scatted with lyrics
•This form did not last long although it's still influences today's music and the music industry
• Example: Gang Star -work 17. Big Band AND FINALLY ... •1930s to late 1950s
•Two big band influences are Woody Herman and Stan Getz
•Big Band is not a genre it's a type of musical ensemble
•Big Band was based in the swing era and the early for jazz
•Big Band has a larger sound is more complex because it has many parts
•Heavy arrangement of instruments
•Big Band orchestrated gaps purposely for improvised solos
•Big Band = result of loud music
Example: Glenn Miller- In the Mood Most Influential Jazz Artists Louis Armstrong 1901-1971
•One of the most important figures in American history. He’s known to be an amazing jazz trumpet player and signer from New Orleans.
•He’s also recognized as one of the greatest musicians of all time in the creation of modern jazz.
•He is absolutely responsible for the acknowledgment of the trumpet as a solo instrument in jazz music.
•His influence on music, both in terms of singing and trumpet playing, has earned him many honors and awards. Charlie Parker 1920-1955
•Simply known as “Yardbird” and “Bird”. He was an American jazz saxophonist and an incredible composer.
•His fast, clean playing abilities influenced so many musicians and the way he wrote his songs changed the standards of composition and also inspired other jazz artists.
•His influence is seen in many musicians and composers and really attempted to contribute into being part of jazz in a hipster point of view. Ella Fitzgerald (1917-1996)
•Commonly known as “first lady of song” grew up as an orphan, then a homeless during her teenage years. She sang on street corners for money.
•She won an amateur talent contest at Harlem’s famed Apollo Theater and her musical career sprouted.
•She won 13 Grammy’s and many other musical awards and honors because of her smooth, flexible, alto voice.
•Her greatest contribution to American music was her series of eight “Songbook” albums, consisting of the greatest American composers and artist she did and did not record with. Modern Day Jazz Artist and Musicians Michael Bublé
•Canadian pop and jazz artist
•At 17 he won the top Canadian Youth Talent Search
•His inspirations were Stevie Wonder, Frank Sinatra, Bobby Darin and Ella Fitzgerald.
•A few of his successes; Come Fly With Me, and soon after It’s Time (2005) , which shot to Number One in Canada and topped the U.S jazz charts. Adele Adkins
•Grammy-Award winning soul, jazz, singer-songwriter
•Born in England
•Her debut 19 album achieved great successes in 2008 as well as her second album 21 in 2011.
•Her sound as a “broken hearted soul” remains and can her the blues and jazz in her music. Influence of Jazz Music in Modern Day •Composers arrange triads into patterns called progressions. Modern music takes its cue from jazz and uses different progressions of 4-5 chords.
•Jazz music made the saxophone a popular instrument for modern bands. Before jazz, bands required one person to play the snare, drums, and cymbals. Today’s modern band would rely on the whole band to play as one. •When listening to modern music, the single instrument played for an extended period comes from a jazz concept.
•Jazz music started placing long melodic sounds between beats constantly which is called syncopation. This has become a standard tool for writing modern music. Game Time ! AND THAT'S JAZZ.. enjoy our little recording (; Benny Goodman (1909-1986)
•Known as the “King of Swing”. He was an American jazz and swing musician, clarinettist and bandleader.
•He led one of the most popular swing bands of the early 20th century but still managed to help the advancement of be-bop.
•Goodman encouraged racial-equality and was an important influence in popular jazz music, as well as Civil Rights activist. Work Cited
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