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ORGC - 631 Organizational and Intercultural Communication Dr. Adrian Krishnasamy Bowie State University Fall 2012

Paola Rodriguez

on 29 November 2012

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Consuming & Resisting Popular Culture Popular culture text do not have to win over the majority of people to be "popular." Pleople often seek out or avoid specific forms of popular culture.
Stuart Hall's [1980] encoding -the construction of textual meaning by popular culture institutions within specific social contexts- /decoding model -the interpretation of the text's meaning by receivers- is performed by various audiences in different social context, whose members have different interests at stake. Learning About Cultures Without Personal Experience The Study of Popular Culture has become increasingly important in the communication field. Although intercultural communication scholars traditionally have overlooked popular culture, it is a significant influence in intercultural interaction. U.S. Popular Culture And Power One of the dynamics of intercultural communication is power. We need to think no only in how people interpret ad consume popular culture but also how these popular culture text represents particular groups in specific ways. Summary * We learn about other cultures through popular culture.

* Popular culture is popular because of its wide dissemination and easy access to many people.

* Popular culture is produce by culture industries, is not folk culture, and serves social functions

* Popular culture can serve as a public forum.

* People can seek out or resist popular culture.

* Cultural groups are often represented in ways that can play into stereotypes.

* The U.S. still dominates global production of popular culture, but others nations produce significant amounts that are important locally THANKS Popular Culture & Intercultural Communication
Paola Rodriguez Barry Brummett [1994] said "Popular culture refers to those systems or artifacts that most people share and that most people know about it" (p.21) DUBAI -Traveling To A Muslim Country Burj Al Arab What Is Popular Culture In 19th Century Matthew Arnold defined culture as "the best that has been thought and said in the world" Western societies distinguish high culture: ballet, symphony, opera, great literature, and fine art. [International / Transcendent & Timeless],
from low culture: music videos, game shows, professional wrestling, stock car racing, graffiti art, TV talk shows, etc. 1960's Ethnic studies, African American & Women's, Gay and Lesbian issues. Popular Culture John Fiske [1989] professor of Communication arts, explains: What Is Popular Culture To be made into popular culture, a commodity must also bear the interest of the people. Popular culture is not consumption, it is culture-the active process of generating and circulating meanings and pleasures within a social system: culture, however industrialized, can never be adequately described in terms of the buying and selling of commodities (p.23) Four Characteristics of Popular Culture 1. It is produce by culture industries
2. It differs from folk culture [Traditional, nonmainstream cultural activities that are not financially driven.]
3. It is everywhere
4. It fills a social function Intercultural contact and intercultural communication play a central role in the creation and maintenance of popular culture High culture Folk Culture Popular Culture Elite aristocratic
expressions of culture Traditional and nonmainstream cultural activities that are not financially driven Ever-present cultural products designed for profitable consumption Rich members of the political establishment Most cultural groups, especially middle class Almost everyone in a social group Capitol Steps Gmail’s 57th Supported Language is Cherokee, Its First Native American Tribal Language Resisting Popular Culture Is produce by people that avoid certain forms of popular culture in one kind of resistance, but resistance can occur in a variety of ways Global Circulation of Images and Commodities Cultural Imperialism Most of the internationally circulated popular culture is U.S. popular culture. E.g. U.S.-made films industry earns far more outside the United States than from the domestic box office receipts (Guback, 1969; Guback & Varis, 1982) The Korean Wave
~Hallyu~ Demonstrated the profitability of South Korean popular culture. This phenomenon has "become a rallying cry within Korea for the perceived success of its cultural industries in Asia"
"Hallyu is a term that can only be applied to a cultural product once it has been exposed to foreign audiences. In other words, no every Korean drama, film or pop song will be label Hallyu-only those that has been exported and done successfully" (J. Kim, 2007, p.48-50) Media Imperialism: Domination or control through media.

Electronic Colonialism: Domination or exploitation utilizing technological forms.

Cultural Imperialism: Domination through the spread of cultural products 5 Ways of Cultural
Imperialism According to John Tomlinson [1991]
1. As cultural domination
2. As media Imperialism
3. As nationalist discourse
4. As a critique of global capitalism
5. As a critique of modernity
Eg. Avatar, Captain America,
the film industry Representing Cultural Groups Popular Culture and Stereotyping
Alexis Tan, Yuki Fujioka, and Gerdean Tan [2000] found that more negative coverage increased negative stereotypes about African Americans. However, they also found that "Positive TV" portrayals did not lead to positive stereotypes, nor did they influence opinions" Marian Meyers [2004] Studied the ways that the violence perpetrated by African American men to African American women was represented. She found that the media coverage brought together issues of race, class, and gender and therefore tended to identify the perpetrators as non students, local troublemakers rather than as students. Richard Dyer [1993] As a Film studies scholar tells us that the effectiveness of stereotypes resides in the way they invoke a consensus...The stereotype is taken to express a general agreement about a social group, as if that agreement arose before, and independently of, the stereotype. Yet for the most part it is from stereotypes that we get our ideas about social groups. "Migrants" Perceptions of Mainstream Culture Dallas Elihu Katz and Tamar Liebes (1987) found that the TV drama Dallas film with U.S. Americans actors in Los Angeles were very much less likely to perceive as portraying life in the United States. In contrast, the Israelis, Arabs, and immigrants were much more inclined to believed that this television show was indeed all about life in the United States. Non Americans consider the story more real than the Americans. (p.421)
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