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King Henry III and the Reformation of the Church of England

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on 27 February 2015

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Transcript of King Henry III and the Reformation of the Church of England

Thomas Cranmer
Archbishop of Canterbury
Argues for annulment to Catherine of Aragon
1549; 1552 Composed
Book of Common Prayer

(Liturgy of the Church of England)
First English Prayer Book with Liturgy for Sunday and Weekdays
1544: Established the first English liturgy (named "
Exhortation and Litany
1556: Executed under the reign of Queen Mary I
Thomas Cranmer (1489-1556)
Thomas Cromwell (1495-1540)
Lawyer, Political and Theological Counsel for Henry VIII
Argued for the annulment of Henry's marriage to Catherine of Aragon
1532: Leader at Parliament | Reformer - Argued for the Royal Supremacy of the King of England over and against the Roman Church

1539-40: Cromwell advised Henry to marry Anne of Cleves after the death of Jane Seymour
1540 (Jan): The Wedding of Henry and Anne
Henry never consummated his wedding to Anne as he was not pleased with her

1540 (July): Cranmer is beheaded for treason, heretical viewpoints, and other claims of sedition | Henry VIII marries Catherine Howard on the same day

Thomas More (1478-1535)
Lawyer, Theologian and Christian Humanist | Lord Chancellor (1529-1532)
Friends with Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam

More was a devout Catholic | Combated the Protestantism of Martin Luther and the Englishman William Tyndale

More challenged the theory of the King of England as the "Supreme Head of the Church."

1529: Executed/beheaded as a traitor against Henry VIII
1935: More was canonized under the reign of Pope Pius XI
King Henry VIII and the Reformation of the Church
The Theology of King Henry VIII
1521 - Authored (with Thomas More):
The Defense of the Sacraments
Pope Leo X names Henry the "Defender of the Faith" (
Fidei Defensor

1529 - Henry sought annulment from Catherine through the Parliament

1533 -
Ecclesiastical Appeals Act (Acts of Restraint)
: Cromwell authors this Act, which declares that no one may appeal to Rome (the Curia) for ecclesiastical/legal issues
Cranmer annulled Henry's marriage to Catherine

1534 -
Act of Supremacy:
Henry VII made the "only supreme head in earth of the Church of England."

1539 -
The Acts of the Six Articles
(Parliament Sanctioned) was Henry's Theological Policy
1. Substance of Christ-God Man in Bread and Wine
2. Communion in Both Kinds is not needed as blood is under the form of the bread
3. Priests do not Marry
4. Vows of Chastity
5. Approval of Private Masses
6. Approval of the Auricular Confession
The Acts of the Six Articles (1539)
1538: German theologians presented Articles based on Augsburg Confession of 1530
Henry VIII was unwilling to commit to the Lutheran Doctrines

1539: Six Articles affirmed central issues of Catholic theology
1. Transubstantiation
2. Withholding of the Cup from the Laity during the Eucharist
3. Celibacy of the Priests
4. Vows of Chastity
5. Allowance for Private Masses
6. Affirms the place and role of Auricular Confession
King Henry VIII (r. 1509-1547)
Second monarch in the Tudor Dynasty

War with France | Disputes with the Roman Church

Married six times (desired a male heir)
Catherine of Aragon
(mother of the later Catholic
Queen Mary
; aunt of Charles V; daughter of Queen Isabelle and King Ferdinand)
Catherine has daughter (Mary I of England) with Henry
Pope Clement VII refused to annul marriage
Anne Boleyn
(1533 - Henry marries Anne, who has daughter
Elizabeth, Queen of England
), Henry executes Anne in 1536
Jane Seymour
(mother of
Edward VI
; Jane died two weeks after birth of Edward in 1539); Henry engaged Jane day after the execution of Anne
Ann of Cleves
(Cromwell arranged marriage, but Henry was unhappy, thus marriage annulled; Cromwell was alienated from Henry and eventually beheaded)
Catherine Howard
(Henry marries Catherine the same day that Cromwell was executed; Catherine beheaded for affairs)
Catherine Parr
(Reconciliation of Henry's daughters [Mary and Elizabeth] occurs with the encouragement of Parr)

Established himself as the Head of the Church of England

Dissolution of the Monasteries (1536-41)
The Six Articles, 1539
Thomas Cranmer, 1489-1556
Defender of the Catholic Faith to the Head of the Church of England
Thomas Cromwell
Thomas Moore
Full transcript