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Foundations of Government

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David Salzer

on 16 February 2016

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Transcript of Foundations of Government

Foundations of Government
Herbert Spencer
Types of Governments
Unitary
Checks and Balancess
Remaining Constitutional Principles
Popular Sovereignty
The State
Population
Sovereignty
Territory
Government
Executive Branch
Judicial Branch
Supreme Court
Test Date: Friday September 18th, 2015
Functionalist
Manifest
Latent
Dysfunction
+ +
- +
- -
How would you apply the functionalist perspective to school?

How would you apply the functionalist perspective to government?
Functions of Government
Leadership
Order
Security
Defense
Public Services
Economic SecurityAssisistance

Dysfunctions of Government
Allocates power to a select few
Can be perceived as coercive rather than legitimate
“The legitimate object of government is to do for a community of people whatever they need to have done but cannot do at all, or cannot so well do for themselves in their separate and individual capacities. But in all that people can individually do for themselves, government ought not to interfere.”

—Abraham Lincoln, 1854
Agree? Disagree?
State of Nature
Four Characteristics
Life without laws and government
Population: 62 Million
Territory: 229, 848 sq. km
Sovereignty: Royal Family
Government: Constitutional Monarchy, Parliamentary System
Population: 829
Territory: 109 Acres
Sovereignty: Bishop of Rome (Pope) Legislative, Executive, Judicial Branch
Government: Elective Monarchy, Theocracy, Absolute Monarchy
Great Britain
Vatican City
No legal responsibilities to any higher authority
Treaties?
United Nations?
Federal
Confederate
How is power divided?
Any power held by local government are expressedly allocated by the central gov.
Functions
Dysfunctions
Full power without any pressure or fear of states/provinces
Central powers excercised with no checks & balances
Loose union of independent states
Functions
Dysfunctions
All key powers are centralized
Great power/sovereignty given to the states
National Powers:
Too specific
Too limited
Too Weak
Divided powers between the nation & state
Each level of government has independence in some way
Functions
Shares powers
Still a central presence
Dysfunctions
Can lack uniformity in laws
Constitution
Provides rules for a type of government
Functions
1. Binds people to shared beliefs/ideals
2. Establishes the basic structure/defines power
3. Supreme law
Dysfuctions
1. An incomplete government
2. Can't detail all laws and customs
3. Actions are not always reflective of the document
Can be written or unwritten
Limited
Limited
Origins of Government
Evolutionary Theory
Force Theory
Divine Right Theory
Social Contract
Personal freedoms surrendered to the state
Exchange for protecttion & security
Natural rights of people preserved by government
Right to rule is designated by god
Existence of government is to meet the demands of god
What would happen if you opposed the government?
Government cannot function without leadership
Male dominated
Strength and violence to protect and enforce authoriyt
Evolved from the family
Extended families/clans needed organization
Which theory best fits your understanding of our govenment?
Democratic =
Authoritarian/Totalitarian =
Constitution grants economic, social, and political freedom
Constitution grants government with dramatic social and economic powers
Why would are both types of government appealing?
All governments exist within this spectrum
Democracy
Authoritarian
Totalitarians
Dictators
Oligarchy
Monarchy
Parliamentary Monarchy
Republic
Direct
Representative

Prime Minister makes up executive branch, while other branches still exist
Authority rests with the people
All citizens cast vote
Elections to grant responsibilities
Representative government with no king
Individual power inherited by family
Absolute and unchallengeable powers by government
Single ruler has total control over a society
Power granted through wealth or social status
How did American colonists go from a bottom half government to a top half government?
Important Documents
Magna Carta
English Bill of Rights
English Law
English Philosophy
French Philosophy
Guarantee of limited government
Protected against:
Unjust punishment
taxing without consent
Set clear limits on the English Monarchy
Monarchs:
Rule with consent of a parliament
Cannot interfere with parliament elections/debate
People have a right to:
Petition
Fair and speedy jury trial
Not be subject to cruel punishment
Not be subject to excessive fines
No human law should contradict the law of nature
Laws of nature at the time were primarily religious
Enlightenment is inverse to religion
Basis for representative government
Enlightenment ideals challenge legitimacy of government
Thomas Hobbes: Social Contract
John Locke: Natural Rights as human beings
Life, Liberty, and Property
Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Freedom or Speech and Religion
Heavily based in enlightenment thought
Separation of Powers
Executive
Legislative
Judicial
Principals of Democracy
Citizen Participation
Elections
Regular
Free
Fair
Acceptance of Results
Rule of Law
Majority Rule maintains Minority Rights
Accountability
Transparency
Limited Government
Bill of Rights
Economic Freedom
Checks and Balances
Equality
Human Rights
Fair and Independent Courts
Competing Political Parties
The American Revolution
French and Indian/Seven Years War
Global Conflict won by the British, resulting in what was tge greatest empire in all of human history
Paying for the War
Taxes
Tea
Sugar
Glass
Paper
Colonist had grown accustomed to governing themselves
Why were these taxes so offensive?
Were the British justified in issuing these taxes?
Violence in Boston
Enlightened & politically "awakened" citizens lived in the Mid-Atlantic Colonies
Boston Massacre
Boston Tea Party
United the Colonists
First and Second Continental Congress
Gathering of delegates from the independent colonies to decide what to do with our relationship with Britain
Prohibited Trade
Embargo
Boycott
Lexington and Concord
Assumed role of Central Government
Purchased supplies
Noegotiated treaties
Rallied support
Declaration of Independence
Founded on the principles of human liberty and conset of government
Four Parts
Preamble describing the source of basic rights
Statement of purpose
Specific complaints
Determination to seperate from Great Britain
Key guide to understanding the Constitution & its values.
Government after Independence
Articles of Confederation
League of Friendship between the Colonies
No Strong Central Government
Rules for:
how the states would relate to one another
what the national government could & could not do
National Government
No National Court
No President/King
Unicameral/Single-Chamber Legislature
Grant each state one vote in Congress
**State governments could do everything not specifically mentioned in the Articles
Weaknesses
1. National War Debt
>Foreign Allies
>Soldiers
2. States viewed themselves as independent from one antoher
3. Different Currencies
4. No power to solve these problems
>No National Court System to interpret
Shay's Rebellion
Economic depression and debt
Revision of the Articles
Replaced with a new document
Constitutional Convention
Aggreements
Compromises
Creating a new system of government
Strengthen National Gov
Limit state currency/credit freedoms
Limited Gov
Representative Gov
Division of Powers
Legislative
Executive
Judicial
Virginia Plan
New Jersey Plan
Can you infer what each state plan might contain?
Great Compromise
Three-Fifths Compromise
Bill of Rights
Legislative Branch
House of Representatives
Senate
Based on state population
50% Majority
Congress = Bi-Cameral System
Two Representatives
Equal Representation
2/3rds to amend
Preamble to the Constitution
"to form a more perfect union"
Acknowledges the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation
President
Signs Bills into law
Veto or Pocket Veto
Appoints Supreme Court Justices
Separation of Powers
Limited Government
Federalism
The "People" ultimately hold political power
Functions
Dysfunctions
Power divided & shared between national government and state government
Judicial Review
Assesses the Constitutionality of laws
Appointed by the Executive Branch
Approved by the Legislative Branch
Basic governing powers broken into divided powers
Designed system of self governence and accountability
Only can do what the people have told it to do
Powers
Delegated
Expressed
Implied
Inherent
Reserved
Exclusive
Concurrent
Full transcript