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Test #3 and 4 Prep - HIST 150, Dr. Ayalon, Ball State U

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Yaron Ayalon

on 27 October 2015

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Transcript of Test #3 and 4 Prep - HIST 150, Dr. Ayalon, Ball State U

Protestant
Reformation
Martin John Ulrich
Luther Calvin Zwingli
Scientific
Revolution
Johannes Guttenberg and the invention of moveable-type-printing (in the 1440s)
Guttenberg Bible

incunabula (books printed before 1501)
made possible in part by the spread of printing and the ideas of the Renaissance
The Renaissance
The Ottoman Empire
The Safavid Empire
Mughal India
Mali
Ming and Qing China
Kievan Rus
Russian Empire
The ancestors of the Russians who
suffered from Mongol invasions
The Ottoman Empire
Notable events:
1299 - beginning
1326 - Bursa
1365 - Edirne
1453 - Constantinople (Istanbul)
1516-17 - Arab World
1571 - Battle of Lepanto
Notable rulers:
Osman I (founder)
Orhan (Osman's son, conqueror of Bursa)
Beyazit I (loses to Tamerlane in Ankara, 1402)
Mehmet I (restores rule after interregnum)
Mehmet II (conqueror of Constantinople)
Selim I (conqueror of Arab lands)
Suleyman I (the magnificent/lawgiver)

18th century - no expansion, focus on internal growth, European influences
Safavids in Iran
Ismail I Tahmasp I
father and son, rulers of Safavid Iran for most of the 16th century
Ruled from 1502 to 1722

Conquered Iran from the Timurids

Made Iran a Shii (Shiite) state

Tahmasp main rival of Suleyman the Magnificent in the 16th century from the east
Mughals in India
Sunni-Muslim, Mongol-Persian dynasty

Introduced Indo-Persian culture, Urdu language

Magnificent architecture


Muhammad Babur, Akbar the Great, Jahangir Khan, and Shah Jahan - four great Mughal emperors of the 16th-17th centuries
Rurik Dynasty
Russian Empire
Fought wars with European powers and the Ottomans, expanded territory

Modernization under Peter the Great and Catherine the Great

Enlightenment influences and enlightened despotism under Catherine the Great

Connection between Catherine and Enlightenment scholars like Votaire and Diderot


1772-95: Partitions of Poland

1700-21: Great Northern War

1768-74: Russo-Ottoman War

Ming China
Qing China
Replaced the Mongol Yuan, ruled 1368-1644

Fortified the north border with the Great Wall

Built the Forbidden City

Advanced science






17th century silver crisis + Little Ice Age = peasants destroyed = collapse of Ming
Took over from Ming in 1644, ruled till 1912

Chinese Enlightenment in 18th century (literacy, arts, knowledge, literature, theater, music, dance


Age of Enlightenment
1340s-50s: Black Death
in Europe and the Middle East

The Renaissance
~1350-~1550

Ottoman conquest of the Arab world, 1516-17

The Protestant Reformation
begins in Germany in 1517
Guttenberg invents moveable-type printing ~1440
Age of Exploration, 1490s to 1800s
~1550s to ~1750s: Scientific Revolution
Age of Enlightenment, ~1650s to ~1790s
1368-1644: Ming China
1453: Ottoman conquest of Constantinople (Istanbul)
Council of Trent, 1545-63
Beginning of Counter/Catholic Reformation
Catherine the Great of Russia
r. 1762-96
Peter the Great of Russia
r. 1682-1725
1700-1721: Great Northern War
1768-74: Russo-Ottoman War
1644-1912: Qing China
~1600 to 1720s: Baroque art in Europe and Ottoman Empire
1720s to late 18th century: Rococo art
1780s to 1830s: Neoclassical art
Baroque music
Classical music
1618-1648: Thirty Years' War
880-1240 Kievan Rus
1283-1547: Duchy of Moscow
from 1547: Tsardom of Russia and (from 1721) Russian Empire
1520-1566: Reign of Suleyman the Magnificent in Ottoman Empire
1524-1576: Reign of Shah Tahmasp I in Safavid Iran
Age of Enlightenment
Second half of 17th and 18th century

Mostly French but spirit spreads elsewhere

Enlightened despots

Principles inspire 2 major revolutions: in America and in France

Enlightenment figures (clockwise from top left):
King Louis XVI of France, Catherine the Great of Russia, Denis Diderot, Voltaire
Mostly British and French
Mostly Spain and Portugal
Inca Empire
1438-1533
Center in present-day Peru

Collapsed after Spanish invasions mostly due to disease
Pre-Columbian era in the Americas
1492
Spanish and Portuguese in east and southeast Asia
The Black Death
Black Death: 1346-52
Little Ice Age: early 1300s to ~1800
and the end of the Middle Ages
The Renaissance
Emerges in post-Black Death Italy, then spreads to rest of Europe

Renaissance scholars = humanists

Source of inspiration = antiquity, not the Church

Antiquarianism

Civic humanism

Classical Republicanism

Commercial elites vs.
monarchy

Renaissance art

Renaissance architecture

Black Death and end of Middle Ages lead to the Renaissance
A by-product of the Renaissance: printing
Historians believe it was the printing revolution that made the spread of ideas such as those of Luther, possible
Wars of Religion and the Thirty Years War
Europe torn apart by struggle between Protestants and Catholics

France: 1562-1598

England: Henry VIII, the Anglican Church, Mary's Catholic restoration, and Elizabeth I's Protestant restoration (1534-1559)

Thirty Years' War, 1618-1648

Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Spread of literacy and end of wars of religion create the conditions for scientific discoveries and inventions
Scientific discoveries and increasing doubt in the power of the church (and the Catholic Church no longer being a monopoly) leads to the development of new ideas and artistic forms
The Renaissance, scientific discoveries, and the Enlightenment lead Europeans to explore the world. The belief that white Christian Europeans are superior to others leads them to dominate and exploit regions in the Americas, Africa, and Asia
Tsardom of Russia and the
From 17th century (Peter the Great) and notably in the 18th, Russia influenced by and involved in Europe
The Great Northern War - one example of Russian involvement in Europe
War is about political and strategic interests, not religion

Russians vs. Sweden (and Ottomans)
Ottomans are the main rivals of the Russians from the 17th century to World War I
Main issue: access from Black Sea to Mediterranean, control of Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits + rights of Christians in the Ottoman Empire
In the 16th to 18th centuries, in addition to their European rivals from the west, the Ottomans were also part of a system of 3 gunpowder Islamic empires, that also included their eastern rivals: the Safavids of Iran and the Mughals of India.
~1300-1918: Ottoman Empire
1502-1736: Safavid Iran
1526-1857: Mughal India
1370-1507: Timur's Empire
(Mongol-Turkic)

The Atlantic Slave Trade
* 16th-18th centuries

* At its peak during the
18th century/Enlightenment

* 1787: The Society for
Effecting the Abolition of the
Slave Trade forms in London

* 1807: Slave Trade Act (British Empire)

* 1808: Slave trade abolished in US (but not slavery itself)

Explorations in the New World led to setting up of colonies there, exploitation of natural resources and local populations, and the growing of huge economies based on slave labor. Slaves would be brought in from Africa, sold to farmers in the New World, and commodities they produced (like sugar) would then be shipped back to be sold in Europe.
We can talk about three major long-term outcomes or consequences of the Enlightenment
Outcome #3: End of Slave Trade and Slavery
* During Enlightenment slave trade expands, but more and more people are talking about the need to abolish it and end slavery

* 1807 in Britain, 1808 in US: no more trade in slaves

* 1833 in Britain: Slavery abolished in British Empire (but not US yet)

1860: still over 4 million slaves in the US

1863: Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation

1865: 13th amendment abolishes slavery in the US

Ottomans continues with slavery to the 1880s at least
Outcome #1: The American Revolution
French and Indian War
(1754-63, also Seven Years' War)

American Revolutionary War
(1776-83)

Founding Fathers of US directly influenced by values of the Enlightenment

French lose in first, help American Colonies win in second, suffer major economic crisis
The American Revolution (people successfully rising against a monarch/empire) and the financial crisis in France and the king's excessive raising of taxes eventually lead to a revolution there, considered the culmination of the values of the Enlightenment
Outcome #2: The French Revolution
1789: Third Estate forms the National Assembly, Tennis Court Oath, storming of the Bastille, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen

By 1790: attack on the Church, dissolution of monastaries

1793-4: Reign of Terror led by Maximilian Robespierre

1794-5: France attacked by Europe

1796-99: Bonaparte leads France to victories, conquests in Europe and the Middle East

1799: Napoleon's coup, crowned as emperor in 1804

1803-15: Napoleonic Wars
within which:
1805: Austerlitz
1812: Invasion of Russia
1815: Waterloo



The 19th century was still an age of great empires
19th century imperialism:
France enters 3rd stage of imperialism from 1830s

British Empire still the largest, ruling territories in Canada, Australia, New Zealand, India and Southeast Asia, and Egypt

From 1880s: Partition of Africa

Justification for imperialism?

Methods of rule?
(indirect vs. direct)
Egypt: Suez Canal
and British Occupation
British Empire's involvement in Egypt was a good example of 19th century imperialism and the importance of the "Eastern Question" to some European powers
1798: Napoleon Bonaparte in Egypt

1801: British-Ottoman force in Egypt

1805-1847: Muhammad Ali

1839: British and French intervene in Egyptian-Ottoman dispute

1869: Opening of Suez Canal

1882: British conquest of Egypt, deposition of Isma'il



Meiji Restoration
and Japanese Imperialism
Imperialism wasn't only a European story. The Japanese too were involved in the second half of the 19th century
1600-1867: Tokugawa Shogunate

Up to 1858: Isolation

1858: Treaty of Amity and Commerce

1867-1912: Emperor Meiji and Japanese imperialism


Emperor Meiji
The Ottoman Empire
The imperial losers
The "Eastern Question" was all about the survival of the Ottoman Empire and the interests of various powers in the territories it governed. In the 19th century the Ottomans become under the influence (and dependence) of those empires that sought to guarantee its existence: Britain and France
Ottoman Empire
Loss of territories continue from the 18th century

Egypt effectively lost after Muhammad Ali takes over

Borrowing and financial dependency begins after the Crimean War (1853-6)

Tanzimat reforms 1839-1876

Abdulhamid II ends reforms, parliament, and constitution




Remember the connection: The Ottoman Empire became increasingly dependent on and controlled by the more successful imperial powers, such as Britain and France, and still constantly threatened by the Russians
Responses to Imperialism/Colonialism
Nationalism
a. In Central and South America
b. In Ottoman territories (Greece, Bulgaria)
c. Jewish nationalism

Socialism
a. Karl Marx
b. the emergence of the Welfare State

Industrial Revolution
The Industrial Revolution
~1760s to 1840s and beyond, Britain then rest of Europe, US, Asia

Made possible by Scientific Revolution, Enlightenment, etc.

Factories, urbanization, steam and electric power, chemicals and building technologies, mass production, improved nutrition, medicine and science
The Industrial Revolution took place while Europe was torn apart by the French Revolution and Napoleon's conquests. This was no coincidence: times of crisis often generate more creativity as they prompt people to seek new, creative solutions to their problems. This period also affected the arts quite dramatically
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