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Aerodynamics of Seeds in Correlation to their Dispersion Pat

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Kayli Hill

on 17 May 2016

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Transcript of Aerodynamics of Seeds in Correlation to their Dispersion Pat

Introduction
Background
Winged Seeds
Maple, Sycamore, Conifer

Shaped like an Aerofoil
Depend on inertia, velocity, drag and lift for dispersal
Found in many different types of plants and trees.
"Falling" Seeds
Seed dispersal - Barochory
Similar aerodynamic models: Airfoil, bullet, prism
Seeds studied: Sunflower, European Beech, Cork oak
Mass does not effect the winged seed's flight.

Dispersion more depends on the lift:drag ratio as well as torque.

Different Aerofoil shapes give optimal velocity

Methods
We chose to study nine plants with varying seed shape.

Three were from the plumed category, three from the falling category, and three from the winged category.

The assumptions we made were:
1. Weather was constant for all plants
2. Land formations were constant for all plants
Aerodynamics of Seeds in Correlation to their Dispersion Patterns
This project will analyze the aerodynamics of various plant seeds to determine whether the shape of the seed Affects the plant's viability.
Plumed Seeds
Seeds disperse with the aid of animals, water, and wind.

Our project will focus on dispersion by wind.

There are three kinds of seeds that fly by wind: plumed, winged, and those that essentially fall to the ground.


Winged seeds
"Falling" Seeds
Works Cited
Questions?
Plumed Seeds
PLumed seeds are mainly found in herb plants
have a characteristic parachute that increases drag on the seed
The area of the plume can be approximated into a circular disc
three plants studied were milkweed, thistle, and dandelion


Aerodynamics
directly related to the weight and the Area of the plume of the seed
An increase in weight and increasing the area of the plume
Maintains the fall rate/weight ratio
Maintains the terminal velocity and dispersal distance
An increase in weight with out changing the area of the plume
seed would be heavy enough to change the shape of the plume
Decrease in drag and an increase in terminal velocity
lower dispersal distance
Results

Future Studies
WInged Seeds
Plants with smaller pappus area have a lower dispersal distance
different wind and weather conditions
height and timing of release
Reynolds number comparison
Lift:Drag Ratio analysis
Kayli Hill, Samantha Schnitzer, Stephanie Tsalwa

Andersen, M. C. (1993). Diaspore morphology and seed dispersal in several wind-dispersed asteraceae. American Journal of Botany, 80(5), 487-492.
Greene, D. F., & Johnson, E. A. (1990). The aerodynamics of plumed seeds. Funtional Ecology, 4(1), 117-125.
Matlack, G. R. (1987). Diaspore size, shape, and fall behavior in wind-dispersed plant species. American Journal of Botany, 74(8), 1150-1160.
Sacchi, C. F. (1987). Variability in dispersal ability of common milkweed, asclepias syriaca, seeds. Oikos, 49(2), 191-198.
Thompson, F. J., Moles, A. T., Auld, T. D., & Kingsford, R. T. (2011). Seed dispersal distance is more strongly correlated with plant height than with seed mass. Journal of Ecology.
Wallace, L. A., Eerens, J. P.J., Rahman, A., & Clarkson, B. D. (n.d.). Horizontal seed dispersion patterns of californian thistle (cirsium arvense). New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 148-151.
15. http://mappingignorance.org/fx/media/2013/05/F1.large_.jpg

Aerodynamics
An increase in moisture content
Increases the terminal velocity linearly.
Decreases drag coefficient
Axial symmetry
higher dispersal distance through rolling
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