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Management of Natural Resources
Transcript of Management of Natural Resources
three problems in particular – Water Harvesting Examples of People’s Participation in the Management of Forests:- Importance of Forests Stake Holders Forests are bio-diversity hotspots Why do we need to manage our Resources ? 3 R: Do we really know the meaning of it ? Ganga Action Plan The Ganga action plan was, launched by Shri Rajeev Gandhi, the then Prime Minister of India on 14 Jan. 1986 with the main objective of pollution abatement, to improve the water quality by Interception, Diversion and treatment of domestic sewage and present toxic and industrial chemical wastes from identified grossly polluting units entering in to the river. The other objectives of the Ganga Action Plan are as under. Definition says:
Reduce: This means that you use less. You save electricity by switchingoff unnecessary lights and fans. You save water by repairingleaky taps. You do not waste food.
Recycle: This means that you collect plastic, paper, glass and metal items and recycle these materials to make required things instead of synthesising or extracting fresh plastic, paper, glass or metal. In order to recycle, we first need to segregate our wastes so that the material that can be recycled is not dumped along with other wastes.
Reuse: This is actually even better than recycling because the process of recycling uses some energy. In the ‘reuse’ strategy, you simply use things again and again. Instead of throwing away used envelopes, you can reverse it and use it again. The plastic bottles in which you buy various food-items like jam or pickle can be used for storing things in the kitchen. Because of the following factors :
Resources are limited in number
With the human population increasing ata tremendous rate due to improvement in health-care, the demand for all resources is increasing at an exponential rate. Tracing our path back :-
Despite nature’s monsoon bounty, failure to sustain
water availability underground has resulted largely from the loss of
vegetation cover, diversion for high water demanding crops, and pollution
from industrial effluents and urban wastes. Irrigation methods like dams,
tanks and canals have been used in various parts of India since ancient
times. These were generally local interventions managed by local people
and assured that the basic minimum requirements for both agriculture
and daily needs were met throughout the year. The use of this stored
water was strictly regulated and the optimum cropping patterns based
on the water availability were arrived at on the basis of decades/centuries
of experience, the maintenance of these irrigation systems was also a
The arrival of the British changed these systems as it changed many
other things. The conception of large scale projects – large dams and
canals traversing large distances were first conceived and implemented
by the British and carried on with no less gusto by our newly formed
independent government. These mega-projects led to the neglect of the
local irrigation methods, and the government also increasingly took over
the administration of these systems leading to the loss of control over
the local water sources by the local people. (i) Social problems because they displace large number of peasants and tribals without adequate compensation or rehabilitation,
(ii) Economic problems because they swallow up huge amounts of public money without the generation of proportionate benefits,
(iii) Environmental problems because they contribute enormously to deforestation and the loss of biological diversity. Watershed management emphasises scientific soil and water conservation in order to increase the biomass production. The aim is to develop primary resources of land and water, to produce secondary resources of plants and animals for use in a manner which will not cause
ecological imbalance. Watershed management not only increases the production and income of the watershed community, but also mitigates droughts and floods and increases the life of the downstream dam and
reservoirs. Control of non-point pollution from agricultural run off, human defecation, cattle wallowing and throwing of unburnt and half burnt bodies into the river.
Research and Development to conserve the biotic, diversity of the river to augment its productivity.
New technology of sewage treatment like Up-flow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) and sewage treatment through afforestation has been successfully developed.
Rehabilitation of soft-shelled turtles for pollution abatement of river have been demonstrated and found useful.
Resource recovery options like production of methane for energy generation and use of aquaculture for revenue generation have been demonstrated.
To act as trend setter for taking up similar action plans in other grossly polluted stretches in other rivers. Polluted Ganga Even songs can be meaningful : •Forest cool air temperature by release of water vapor into the air.
•At day time trees generate oxygen and store carbon dioxide, which helps to clean air.
•Forest attracts wild life and offer food and protection to them.
•Forests offer privacy, reduce light reflection, offer a sound barrier and help guide wind direction and speed.
•Trees offer artistic functions such as creating a background, framing a view, complementing architecture, and so on.
•Well managed forests supply higher quality water with less impurity than water from other resources.
•Some forests raise total water stream, but this is not true for all forests
•Forests help in controlling the level floods.
•Forest provides different kind of wood which are used for different purposes like making of furniture, paper, and pencils and so on.
•Forest help in giving the direction of wind and its speed.
•Forest helps in keeping environment healthy and beautiful.
•Forests also minimize noise pollution.
•Forest helps the scientist to invent new medicine as forest has different kind or plants and herb. the people who live in or around forests are dependent on forest
produce for various aspects of their life the Forest Department of the Government which owns the land
and controls the resources from forests. the industrialists – from those who use ‘tendu’ leaves to make
bidis to the ones with paper mills – who use various forest produce,
but are not dependent on the forests in any one area. the wild life and nature enthusiasts who want to conserve nature in its present form. 1. 2. 3. 4. Chipko Movement The first Chipko action took place spontaneously in April 1973 in the village of Mandal in the upper Alakananda valley and over the next five years spread to many districts of the Himalayas in Uttar Pradesh. It was sparked off by the government's decision to allot a plot of forest area in the Alaknanda valley to a sports goods company. This angered the villagers because their similar demand to use wood for making agricultural tools had been earlier denied. With encouragement from a local NGO (non-governmental organization), DGSS (Dasoli Gram Swarajya Sangh), the women of the area, under the leadership of an activist, Chandi Prasad Bhatt, went into the forest and formed a circle around the trees preventing the men from cutting them down.
The success achieved by this protest led to similar protests in other parts of the country. From their origins as a spontaneous protest against logging abuses in Uttar Pradesh in the Himalayas, supporters of the Chipko movement, mainly village women, have successfully banned the felling of trees in a number of regions and influenced natural resource policy in India. Dhoom Singh Negi, Bachni Devi and many other village women, were the first to save trees by hugging them. They coined the slogan: 'What do the forests bear? Soil, water and pure air'. The success of the Chipko movement in the hills saved thousands of trees from being felled. 1. 2. People's participation in the management of Sal forests In 1972, the West Bengal Forest Department recognised its failures in
reviving the degraded Sal forests in the southwestern districts of the
state. Traditional methods of surveillance and policing had led to a ‘complete alienation of the people from the administration’, resulting in
frequent clashes between forest officials and villagers. Forest and land
related conflicts in the region were also a major factor in fuelling the
militant peasant movements led by the Naxalites.
Accordingly, the Department changed its strategy, making a
beginning in the Arabari forest range of Midnapore district. Here, at the
instance of a far-seeing forest officer, A.K. Banerjee, villagers were involved
in the protection of 1,272 hectares of badly degraded sal forest. In return
for help in protection, villagers were given employment in both silviculture
and harvesting operations, 25 per cent of the final harvest, and allowed
fuelwood and fodder collection on payment of a nominal fee. With the
active and willing participation of the local community, the sal forests of
Arabari underwent a remarkable recovery. A forest which was valued 12.5 CRORES! Worthless forest By 1983, turned into Why do we seek to build dams? Large dams can ensure the storage of adequate water not just for irrigation, but also for generating electricity, as discussed in the previous chapter. Canal systems leading from these dams can transfer large amounts of water great distances For example :- has led to Greenery in considerable areas of Rajasthan. Catchment area Khadin or cropped area Seepage Khadin Bund Saline area Shallow Dugwell Traditional water harvesting system — an ideal setting of the khadin system Petroleum The term petroleum comes from the Latin stems petra, "rock," and oleum, "oil." It is used to describe a broad range of hydrocarbons that are found as gases, liquids, or solids beneath the surface of the earth. The two most common forms are natural gas and crude oil.
Natural gas is a mixture of lightweight alkanes. A typical sample of natural gas when it is collected at its source contains 80% methane (CH4), 7% ethane (C2H6), 6% propane (C3H8), 4% butane and isobutane (C4H10), and 3% pentanes (C5H12). The C3, C4, and C5 hydrocarbons are removed before the gas is sold. The commercial natural gas delivered to the customer is therefore primarily a mixture of methane and ethane. The propane and butanes removed from natural gas are usually liquefied under pressure and sold as liquefied petroleum gases (LPG). Coal As early as 1800, coal gas was made by heating coal in the absence of air. Coal gas is rich in CH4 and gives off up to 20.5 kJ per liter of gas burned. Coal gas or town gas, as it was also known became so popular that most major cities and many small towns had a local gas house in which it was generated, and gas burners were adjusted to burn a fuel that produced 20.5 kJ/L. Gas lanterns, of course, were eventually replaced by electric lights. But coal gas was still used for cooking and heating until the more efficient natural gas (38.3 kJ/L) became readily available. AN OVERVIEW OF NATURAL RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT Sustainable management of natural resources is a difficult task. In
addressing this issue, we need to keep an open mind with regard to the
interests of various stakeholders. We need to accept that people will act
with their own best interests as the priority. But the realisation that
such selfish goals will lead to misery for a large number of people and a
total destruction of our environment is slowly growing. Going beyond
laws, rules and regulations, we need to tailor our requirements,
individually and collectively, so that the benefits of development reach
everyone now and for all generations to come. Petroleum being extracted
Aman Aloon Presentation by : Views of the group members on the topic- Management of Natural Resources •God has gifted us with precious natural resources and we are the only ones there to utilize it and mend it in our every possible favour. So,it is our duty to protect our environment by conserving these natural resources and also side by side looking at other options of non conventional resources as these
resources are infinite in number and can yield large amounts of energy like in the cases of solar energy,wind energy,tidal energy etc.
It is estimated that in india coal reserves would last for other 40 years only and petroleum reserves for nearly 200 years
so a time would come when we will be empty handed in the case of natural resources,keeping this situation in mind,there is urgent need for transition from the consumption of conventional resources to non conventional resources.So,here comes the vital role of'3R'
Aman Aloon Simran Goria Natural resources are those resources which are provided to us by nature and are capable of sustaining our needs.But these are not unlimited and with the human population increasing at a tremendous rate due to improvement in healthcare,
the demand for all resources is increasing at an exponential rate.The management of natural resources requires a long term perspective so that these will last for the generations to come and will not merely be exploited to the hilt for short term gains.
This management should also be ensure equitable distribution of resources so that all,and not just a handful of rich and powerful people,benefit from the development of these resources.
•Government had taken some steps like 'Ganga Action Plan' in 1985 to save our holy river 'Ganga'.
We should keep in mind the three R's to save our resources-1.Reduce-Using less and less natural resources
2.Reuse-To use things again and again.
3.Recycle-It minimises the faster depletion of natural resources.
Many steps were taken by local people like'The Chipko Andolan'.If everyone try to contribute a little,then we are able to conserve our natural resources.
Dheeraj Singh We have plenty of natural resources available for our use if used properly. Though some resources are limited (coal, petroleum etc.) and some unlimited (water, air). Such vast choice of resources can be used efficiently only if MANAGED properly. From the recent years mismanagement of resources is leading us towards scaricity of resources. An if we don’t get alert at right time, soon the time will come when we wil run out of all the resources and thus life would be difficult on earth. Govt. is now taking steps to ensure sustainable management of all the resources available in the nation. We can reduce pressure on the environment by sincerely applying the maxim of ‘reduce, reuse and recycle’ in our lives. In my opinion sustainability of all valuable resources can be obtained by only when each person does his part of saving the environment. EVERY BIT COUNTS. Rahil Natural resource management refers to the management of natural resources such as land, water, soil, plants and animals, with a particular focus on how management affects the quality of life for both present and future generations (stewardship).
Natural resource management deals with managing the way in which people and natural landscapes interact. It brings together land use planning, water management, biodiversity conservation, and the future sustainability of industries like agriculture, mining, tourism, fisheries and forestry. It recognises that people and their livelihoods rely on the health and productivity of our landscapes, and their actions as stewards of the land play a critical role in maintaining this health and productivity. Natural resource management is also congruent with the concept of sustainable development, a scientific principle that forms a basis for sustainable global land management and environmental governance to conserve and preserve natural resources.
Natural resource management specifically focuses on a scientific and technical understanding of resources and ecology and the life-supporting capacity of those resources. Environmental management is also similar to natural resource management. In academic contexts, the sociology of natural resources is closely related to, but distinct from, natural resource management. Rohit Umrao All the things we use and consume are obtained from
natural resources. Due to increase in population,
industrialisation and urbanisation the demand for natural
resources is increasing and their availability is limited . So
there is a need for proper management of natural resources.
The proper management of natural resources consists of :-
i) Judicious use of natural resources and avoiding wastage
of natural resources.
ii) Long term planning for the use of natural resources so
that it last not only for the present but also for future
iii) The exploitation of natural resources should not be for
the benefit of a few people but should be distributed
equally for all.
iv) While extracting and using natural resources we should
also plan for the safe disposal of wastes so that no
damage is caused to the environment. 1.Reduce- to make something smaller or use less, resulting in a smaller amount of waste.
"Source reduction" is reducing waste before you purchase it, or by purchasing products that are not wasteful in their packaging or use.
A key part of waste "reduction" is "conservation"—using natural resources wisely, and using less than usual in order avoid waste.
You can practice reduction by selecting products that do not have to be added to landfills or the waste stream in general. This is really easy to do...
•First and foremost, buy and use less! If all the other people on the Earth used as much "stuff" as we do in the United States, there would need to be three to five times more space just to hold and sustain everybody.... WOW! So buy only what you need and use all of what you buy. Or make sure that when you are through with something, you pass it along to other people who can continue to put it to good use. This is especially important when it comes things that can be dangerous to our environment, such as paint and chemicals.
2.Recycle- don’t just toss everything in the trash. Lots of things (like cans, bottles, paper, and cardboard) can be remade into either the same kind of thing or new products. Making new items from recycled ones also takes less energy and fewer resources than making products from brand new materials.
Just about anything in your home (or office or school, etc.) that cannot be reused CAN be recycled into something else. You'd be amazed what can be done with a recycled product! A recycled soda bottle, can be made into T-shirts, combs, or hundreds of other plastic goods that can be used for many years. Even your brand new computer case might be made from ordinary recycled plastics. And paper products can take on different forms as well; an old phone book or coloring book might become one of your school books or a notebook.
Your recycling mission is not impossible! In fact, it is very simple:
Don't throw away anything that can be recycled!
3.Reuse-You can "reuse" materials in their original form instead of throwing them away, or pass those materials on to others who could use them too! Remember, one man's trash is another man's treasure! Here are some examples of reuse...
•Take along washable cups or travel mugs instead of disposables; a lot of restaurants and stores will be glad to fill or refill your own mug.
•When you do use disposables like plastic cups, plates, utensils, and plastic food storage bags, don't throw them away! Wash and reuse them—most of them will last for a long time with many uses. They may not cost much to replace, but it doesn't make any more sense to throw away those things than it does to throw away your bicycle after one use.This is even better than recycling. Priyanka Sahu Our resources likeforests,wild life,water,coal andpetroluem need to be used in a sustainable mannerWe can reduce pressure on the environment by sincerely applying the 3 R's.Management of forest resources has to take into account the interestof stakeholders. The fossil fuels will ultimately get exhausted as their combustion pollutes our environment so we need to use these resources judiciously. Mahima Sharma For our better future we have to conserve our forest and wildlife.Forest and wildlife together maintain the ecological balance in nature.We have to conserve them to meet our material aspirations. There are some approach towards the conservation of forests by local people like 'Chipko Andolan'.