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Newton's First & Second Laws of Motion
Transcript of Newton's First & Second Laws of Motion
- Newton's First & Second Laws - The First Law
of Motion The English mathematician Sir Isaac Newton restated Galileo's ideas about motion in the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's first law of motion states that an object at rest will remain at rest, and an object moving at a constant velocity will continue moving at constant velocity, unless it is acted upon by an unbalanced force. If an object is not moving, it will not move until a force acts on it. Clothes on the floor will stay there until someone picks them up. Earth, gravity and friction are unbalanced forces that often change an object's motion. Inertia Whether an object is moving or not, it resists any change to its motion. Galileo's concept of the resistance to a change in motion is called inertia. Newton's first law is also called the law of inertia. An object's resistance to a change in motion is called inertia. Inertia explains many common events, such as why you move forward in your seat when a car stops suddenly. A force, such as the pull of a seat belt, is required to change your motion. Inertia Depends
on Mass Some objects have more inertia than others. The amount of inertia an object has depends on its mass. Objects with greater mass have more inertia, and require a greater force to cause a change in motion. Objectives What is Newton's First Law of Motion? The Second Law
of Motion Newton's second law of motion states that acceleration depends on the object's mass and the net force acting on the object. This relationship can be written in an equation: When acceleration is measured in meters per second per second (m/s2) and mass is measured in kilograms, force is measured in kilograms x meters per second per second (kg.m/s2). This unit is called the newton (N). One newton equals the force required to accelerate one kilogram of mass at 1 meter per second per second. Recall from 'The Nature of Force' notes that a newton is the SI unit for force. You can think of 1 newton as the force required to give a 1-kg mass an acceleration of 1 m/s2. What is Newton's Second Law of Motion? Change in Force & Mass The acceleration of an object will increase if the force increases. According to the equation, acceleration and force change in the same way – both get larger. Another way to increase the acceleration is to change the mass. The equation also shows that the acceleration will increase if the mass decreases. Acceleration and mass change in opposite ways. Acceleration = Net Force Mass