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Transcript of Macbeth
Both Malcolm and Macduff become allies through their shared definition of kingship and love of Scotland. Macduff serves as a teacher to Malcolm in showing him that compassion and decency are important virtues, especially when embarking into a role of leadership
Macbeth’s cruel murder of the Macduff family is revealed as well as the numerous atrocities he has committed through his role as king. Macduff, Malcolm, Ross, the englishmen and the king of England himself have turned agaisnt Macbeth, now hating him and seeking to overturn his crown.
Appearance vs Reality
Symbolism in 4:3
" Angels are bright still, though the brightest fell:
Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, yet grace must still look so." (p191,25-27)
"Put on their instruments. Receive what cheer you may; the night is long that never finds the day." (4.3.205)
"Bleed, bleed, poor country: Great tyranny, lay thou thy basis sure, For goodness dares not check thee: wear thou thy wrongs; The title affeer'd." (p193,36-39)
This line is spoken by Malcolm to Macduff to encourage him to rebel against Macbeth. The "night" he speaks of symbolizes the dark and malicious kingdom that Macbeth has created and the "day" embodies the goodness and morality that will soon be restored.
"'Tis called the evil: a most miraculous work in this good king: which often, since my here-remain in England, I have seen him do." (4.3)
-Macduff is trying to get Malcolm to attack Macbeth.
-Malcolm is not sure he can trust Macduff and is fearful that Macduff will betray him
- The "brightest" angel refers to Satan, who was one of God's most beloved angels before he fell
- The second line is referring to deception as all things evil want to appear to be good
- Nevertheless, those who are truly in a state of grace will continue to look gracious.
Malcolm is essentially saying that just because some "good" people would betray him, doesn't mean that all good people would. Even though those of evil look like good people but turn out to be pretending, the good people are going to look the very same .
Malcolm describes to Macduff the scrofula, a disease that can allegedly be cured by King Edward and his successors. This "evil" infection symbolizes the plague of cruelty that Macbeth has imposed upon Scotland and the healing powers of the King and his men illustrates the beacon of hope--that their influence will help in healing the corrupt society.
"Lent us good Siward and ten thousand men; and older and a better soldier none that Chistendom gives out" (4.3.201)
Malcolm is speaking of the revolt that must take place against Macbeth's ruling and brings up that they would use "Siward" to help in battle, he was known as the best and strongest Christian soldier worldwide.
The mention of Siward acts a symbol of good and purity, a soldier that is works for the most noblest of reasons opposed to Macbeth, who killed ruthlessly in the Scottish/Norwegian battles for nothing other than brutality and political gain.
This scene is ultimately the biggest transitional segment of the play. Macbeth's evil actions have been fully revealed, there is no more secrecy and hiding that he can possibly achieve. At this point Macbeth now has 1000 English soldiers and King Henry himself going against him.
We see a major rise in action as Macduff, Malcolm and the Englishmen are committed to overturning Macbeth.
This particular scene sets the pre-climactic action and reveals the nobility and true desire for proper ruling within two major characters ; Macduff and Macbeth. The scene is the first positive hope-aspiring scene to occur since the very beginning. We see that major change is about to take place.
"Dispute it like a man" -25
- Naturally, Macduff responds with grief, yet Malcolm tells Macduff to dispute it like a man.
- Quickly shifts into the male role by using the death of his family as a motive to kill
- Macduff responds as a man should - not as a woman who would “braggart with [her] tongue”
- As a man would, Macduff responds in the valiant action of war
"Though all things foul would wear the brows of grace, yet grace must still look so”- 25
- Malcolm is testing the loyalty of Macduff
- Evil wants to seem as if it were good, referring to Macbeth and Satan
- You cannot hide grace
- Although Macbeth looks as if he is the rightful king, he is just a pretender wearing the brows of grace whereas Scotland is rightfully graced upon Malcolm
"at his touch, such sanctity hath heaven given his hand"- 100
- Presence of the King of England
- Said to have had powers that healed strange illnesses, have the gift of prophecy and other things that were heavenly blessed.
- King Edward passed this ability to his successors
- In this scene we learn what it is to be a king in the opinion of Malcolm
- The corruption of Macbeth is recognized by Malcolm and Macduff referring to Macbeth as a 'tyrant', bringing tyranny to Scotland, etc
- Power lies in war, from Macbeth's vistory in the beginning and Malcolm's plan to overthrow Macbeth through an army of 10 000 Englishmen
- Offers a new idea of power. Power that is not gained through deceit, instead power can be gained through valor. Men can be used by men, rather than power using men.
“Let us rather hold fast the mortal sword and, like good men, bestride our downfall’n birthdom. Each new morn new widows howl, new orphans cry, new sorrows strike heaven on the face, that it resounds as if it felt with Scotland” (4.3.5)
“...black Macbeth will seem as pure as snow, and the poor state esteem him as a lamb” (4.3.60)
“Not in the legions of horrid hell can come a devil more damned in the evils to top Macbeth” (4. 3. 65)
Good vs. Evil
MacDuff tries to bring Malcom to be king of Scotland, however Malcom claims to be greedy and violent which makes MacDuff fear for Scotland’s safety. After MacDuff expresses his concern, Malcom admits that it was a test of his loyalty to Scotland. These two men proceed to join as allies.
A doctor then appears to express to them that King Edward is currently with a group of sick people which then bring Malcom to discuss the king’s power with MacDuff.
Ross arrives from Scotland to assure MacDuff that his children and wife are all well, although he later admits that his children and wife have all been murdered by Macbeth. Malcom then encourages MacDuff to return home by encouraging him to use all his grief and anger to enrage his heart to proceed in revenge on Macbeth. Malcom explains how he will return to Scotland with ten thousand English soldiers.
Loyalty vs. Dishonesty
Within the 1st portion of the scene, Shakespeare uses imagery in order to explain the state of Scotland.
-Scotland is suffering under the tyranny of Macbeth "bloody scept'red" (4.3.120)
-Scotland is depicted as vulnerable characters: children and women
Get am image of Macduff's character, "mortal sword"
We see that Malcolm attempts to be strong and ruthless. When Ross shares word of Lady Macduff’s death he states to Macduff “Dispute it like a man.” Macduff replies “I shall do so but I must also feel it as a man.” This reveals that Macduff possesses compassion and emotion, not merely aggression. Malcolm, being young, is sub consciously taught this by Macduff, that he cannot be a true king without compassion.
-Comparison of Malcom and Macbeth as kings
-Macbeth is a murderer and Malcom would never hurt an innocent person
Macduff reveals that he can be very emotional and that his family meant a great deal to him, this is made visible through his expression of grief.
Malcolm portrays evident sly and creative characteristics based on the test of character he puts upon Macduff. This side of him is something unseen by the audience until this point, we realize he is more clever than he may have first appeared.
- Macbeth is a follower of the witches guidance
- Appearance vs reality: evil vs good represent through white and black sheep
- Sacrificial lamb?
- building off of devil comparison with Macbeth
- focus on the deceitful, tyrannic ways of Macbeth
Act 4, Scene 3
- Referring to the "Great tyrant" (which Macduff often refers Macbeth as throughout the play)
- Macduff explains that good people are afraid of you so go ahead and build yourself up.
- Enjoy the things you have stolen because your title is safe.
Later in the quote:
- Explains how Macduff would never dare to be the vilain Malcolm thinks he is even if he was offered all of Macbeth's kingdom and many more riches.
Ross, is a noble man and cousin to Macbeth. He is thought to be just a messenger man but shows a turn of emotion after telling Macduff about his family. Although it is never said in this scene, Ross is more hesitant as the audience can sense he does not approve the message and feels rather guilty.