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Unit 14 Physiological disorders


Nicola Maxfield

on 8 November 2015

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Transcript of Unit 14 Physiological disorders

Blood glucose (blood sugar) test
Blood gas test – respiratory diseases & disorders
Hormone levels – endocrine disorders
Blood typing -
Blood cholesterol test
Liver function test
Blood cultures
◆ The presenting complaint(s) what's wrong
◆ The history of the presenting complaint(s)
How long has it been happening?
◆ Past medical history what have you had in the past?
◆ Drug/allergy history what are you allergic to?
are you taking any medication?
◆ Family medical history what diseases are in your family?
◆ Personal and social history
Details of your family, where you live, etc ...
Use of Images
Can discern between liver disease and where the bile duct might be blocked
High levels of bilirubin indicate blocked bile duct
Function Tests
Ultrasound Scans
CT or CAT Scans
Rarer Elf
1. fels
2. rarer elf
3. that dry rip

Covered in unit 17/18
Types of Referral
Jack Osbourne - MS
Unit 14: Physiological Disorders
Full Blood Count
Electrolyte test
Check the level of electrolytes in the blood – sodium, potassium,
Chloride, require for transport in & out of the cell
Blood Tests
Physical nature
Chemical composition

Urea – can be toxic
Amino acids – end product of digesting proteins
Urine tests
U & Es
Casualty speak
Your gp
Test urine
Test sputum
Take blood tests
Take blood pressure
Your observations
Blood in urine
Testicular lumps
Check for enlarged organs

To note areas that are tender, have lumps or are unyeilding
Washer, P (2009) Clinical Communication Skills, OUP, Oxford
◆ The presenting complaint(s)
◆ The history of the presenting complaint(s)
◆ Past medical history
◆ Drug/allergy history
◆ Family medical history
◆ Personal and social history
◆ Systems review
Medical history
Lung Function
Function Tests
X-rays are a type of radiation called electromagnetic waves. X-ray imaging creates pictures of the inside of your body. The images show the parts of your body in different shades of black and white. This is because different tissues absorb different amounts of radiation. Calcium in bones absorbs x-rays the most, so bones look white. Fat and other soft tissues absorb less, and look gray. Air absorbs the least, so lungs look black.

The most familiar use of x-rays is checking for broken bones, but x-rays are also used in other ways. For example, chest x-rays can spot pneumonia. Mammograms use x-rays to look for breast cancer.


Computed tomography (CT) is a type of imaging. It uses special x-ray equipment to make cross-sectional pictures of your body.

Doctors use CT scans to look for

Broken bones
Blood clots
Signs of heart disease
Internal bleeding
During a CT scan, you lie still on a table. The table slowly passes through the center of a large X-ray machine. The test is painless. During some tests you receive a contrast dye, which makes parts of your body show up better in the image.
Ultrasound is a type of imaging. It uses high-frequency sound waves to look at organs and structures inside the body. Health care professionals use it to view the heart, blood vessels, kidneys, liver, and other organs. During pregnancy, doctors use ultrasound to view the fetus. Unlike x-rays, ultrasound does not expose you to radiation.

During an ultrasound test, you lie on a table. A special technician or doctor moves a device called a transducer over part of your body. The transducer sends out sound waves, which bounce off the tissues inside your body. The transducer also captures the waves that bounce back. The ultrasound machine creates images from the sound waves.

Lung function tests
Lung function tests look at how well your lungs work. The tests usually take around an hour and may include some of the tests described here.
Routine lung function tests include spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer.

Spirometry is a test that shows how well you breathe in and out. The device that is used to make the measurements is called a spirometer. We will ask you to breathe in fully and to blow out as hard and fast as you can into the mouthpiece of the spirometer. You may have to repeat this a number of times.

Lung volumes
Measuring lung volumes (the total size of your lungs) can give us more detailed results. This test involves sitting inside a glass box with a clip on your nose to make sure that no air escapes from your nose. We will ask you to breathe into a mouthpiece similar to that of the spirometer. The test is not painful and we will be able to talk to you while it takes place.

Gas transfer
This test measures the amount of oxygen that passes from your lungs into your blood. We will ask you to breathe in a harmless gas through a mouthpiece. Once your lungs are full, we will ask you to hold your breath for about 10 seconds and then breathe out the gas. The gas will be tested to see how much oxygen comes from your lungs.
Liver function test
When the liver is damaged, it releases enzymes into the blood and levels of proteins that the liver produces begin to drop.
By measuring the levels of these enzymes and proteins, it's possible to build up a picture of how well the liver is functioning.
This can help to diagnose certain liver conditions, including:
alcohol-related liver disease
Diagnosing Crohn's disease
Initial assessment
• Incl medical history, diet etc
Your GP may also carry out a series of standard tests to assess your general state of health. For example, they may:
• check your pulse
• check your blood pressure
• measure your height and weight
• measure your temperature
• examine your abdomen
Blood tests
Stool sample
MRE and CTE scans
Small bowel enema or small bowel follow-through
Full transcript