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Canadian Geography CPT

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Bogdan Malynovskyy

on 25 October 2013

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Transcript of Canadian Geography CPT

Landform Regions
Canadian Shield
Interior Plains
Rock formed in the early Paleozoic to Cenozoic eras and is about 4 million years old
Elevation varies, many plains have been carved out through erosion.
Flat lands
Area was shaped when
inland seas receded
Reaches of flat, and often
poorly drained lowlands
Temperatures in January are usually about -27°C around the Yellowknife/Northern great lake area
In July, temperatures are usually
16°C along the Mackenzie river
Annual rainfall is
usually light.
North and East summer temperatures do not usually rise above 10°C, not even in July.
There is usually only around 70 frost-free days, therefore growing season for herbaceous plants is short.
Natural Vegetation
Forests of black
and white spruce
While growing season lasts, wildflowers
and grasses flourish, and root and
cereal crops can be cultivated
Some field crops
grow for local use
Aproximately of forested land, yet most of it is only locally used as timber
Rich soils up to 25m deep, ideal for wheat
Some thin, acidic soil, good for
forestry yet not agriculture
Landform Regions
Western Cordillera
Rock was formed
during the Cenozoic era
Many mountains over 3000m
Rocky Mountains
Young, steep mountains
that are separated by plains
January temperatures
are usually around -18°C
July tempretures are
comfortably cool
Annual rainfall is usually around
4,100mm for costal towns,
Merrit (200km away from coast) usually
only has 320mm of annual rainfall
Victoria usually has less than 885mm
And Vancouver usually receives around 1200mm
Large variety of climates depending on regions due to the Kuroshio (Japan Current) which warms
the coast and the adjoining mountain ranges
Natural Vegetation
The mild, wet climate of the coastal region produces large trees, some of the old grown specimens exceeding 60m in height.
Western Hemlock, Red Cedar, Balsam Fir, and Sitka Spruce predominate, but the Douglas Fir which makes excellent sawn lumber also grows in slightly drier regions.
The trees of the interior are smaller, they include Douglas Fir, Lodgepole and Ponderosa pine in the south, and in the central region, while White Spruce Grows in the far north.
Soil is thin and acidic, which is good
for forests, yet not agriculture
2/3 of the soil is forested
Small portion is suitible for
agriculture (extremley fertile)
The Peace River Country is suitable
for large-scale grain farming

Canadian Shield
Rock formed during the Paleozoic era
and is about 4 billion years old
Landforms vary, some mountains some plains
Elevation varies from Appalachian to Lowlands
Mainly flatter land
Area shaped through moving water and ice through glaciers and plate movement leaving behind rich mineral deposits, and allowing for growth of huge forests and collection of hydroelectric power
Northern Ontario
900,000 km²
Generally no higher than
460m above sea level
Lakes and rivers
Muskeg (bogs)
Densely forested rocky
and rugged terrain
Paleozoic rock to depths of 200m
Lower than the rest of the shield area
Mainly flat and poorly drained
Poorly drained areas lead to
swampy forests, tundra and bog
Southern Ontario
Some volcanic and faulting action left fractures in crust, with harder rock types, but mainly sand and clay
Lower than the shield areas,
located southern of the shield
Nearly Level to soil referred to as "Brown Earth"
Was flooded by the Champlain sea 10,000 years ago, then drained, leaving good base for soil
Blue Mountains, just over 540m above sea level
Lowest area is on the Ottawa River,
only 45m in elevation above sea level
Climate Characteristics
January temperatures are around

-4°C, and -11°C around the Ottawa valley
July temperatures around the Thunder
bay area are usually about 18°C
Annual rainfall in the Thunder bay
area is usually around 700mm
Ottawa usually receives just under 900mm of rainfall and slightly over 2,160 mm of snow
In Toronto, the annual rainfall is about 790mm and the annual snowfall is about 1370mm
In the Boreal forest areal many types of trees such as Black/White Spruce, Jack Pine, Tamarack, Poplar, White Birch, and Balsam thrive
The band of tundra exists in the Hudson Bay
In Southern Ontario, the Hardwood forest is home to many White-Red pine trees due to the lighter soil, however due to 19th century, land cleaning/lumbering removed most of the original forest.
Large amounts of animal life
Many soils are rich and fertile due to sand and silt deposits by rivers, especially in delta areas
Northern Ontario consists largely of brown Paleozoic (mineral covered, leached), soils unsuitable for agriculture
Southern Ontario is mainly covered with fertile gray-brown Paleozoic soil left behind by glaciers
Places to visit:
CN Tower
Niagara Falls
Canada's Wonderland
British Columbia:
Atlantis Waterslides
Britannia Mine Museum
Capilano Suspension Bridge
Northwest Territories:
Cameron River Falls Trail
Nahanni National Park
Mackenzie River
Full transcript