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Copy of Copy of Second Language Acquisition

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A. Young

on 3 June 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Copy of Second Language Acquisition

Second Language Acquisition Second Language Acquisition 1.Preproduction
2.Early Production
3.Speech Emergence
4.Intermediate Fluency
5.Continued Language Development 5 Stages of Second Language Acquisition Theories BICS and CALP Second Language
Acqusition Factors Affecting
Second Language Acquisition What is it? Second Language Acquisition is the process, subconscious and conscious, of learning another language after the native language had been learned. 1. Stephen Krashen
Krashen believes that language is best acquired through natural communication, not through traditional language teaching, which typically involves memorizing dialogues and conjugating verbs. 2. Jim Cummins
•Cummins’s linguistic interdependence hypothesis states that cognitive academic skills learned in the native language will transfer to the new language and that such skills are interdependent across languages. BICS CALP •Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills
•It is used in a person’s daily language to socially interact with others. •Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency
•This is the formal way to learn academic material. Student Support Schema Motivation Age Family Access to Language Personality First-Language Quality of Instruction Development Cognitive Ability
1.Motivation
2.Age
3.Family
4.Access to Language
5.Personality
6.First-Language Development
7.Quality of Instruction
8.Cognitive Ability There are two types of motivation:
Integrative- this type of occurs when second language learners are motivated to learn a language because they want to join or identify with another language group.
Instrumental- this type occurs when the second language learner is motivated for reasons such as getting a job or passing a test. Younger learners text to learn a second language through communication with peers. Also, younger learners have the ability to take risks when speaking a new language.
It is said that older learners learn more efficiently through formal instruction. Also, it is harder for an older learner to become proficient in a second language because there is more complex academic material, more high-stake assessments, and less support. Brittney Klein
TEAC 317 There are 8 factors that affect second language acquisition: It is known that Second language learners benefit when they are able to have conversations with native speakers. Second language learners have access to language in classrooms, at home, or in their neighborhoods. There are many factors that could influence a person's second language acquisition at home which include the socioeconomic status, parental education level, parent English proficiency, and what language is actually spoken at home. For immigrant families, some schools offer a chance for the parents to come in and become proficient in English to help their children. The families are also encouraged to provide a rich linguistic experience for their children by telling stories, singing songs, or reading books in their native language. When a second language learner is more outgoing, they will have more chances to use the language through interaction with native language speakers.
It is also said that risk taking is a component of second language acquisition. When a second language learner is willing to take risks they will not miss out on opportunities to practice using the language and they get to experiment with the vocabulary. When a second language learner's native language is well developed, it is said that the information from the native language will transfer to the second language. Having solid schooling in their native language makes the students more efficient in acquiring a second language especially since strong oral and literacy skills were formed. With second language learners, the better the quality of instruction that they have, the more information they will retain from the instruction. Also, the students need a teacher who has a positive outlook and who is patient. Another factor is the organization of the classroom. Second language learners need clear learning objectives, systematic instruction, and interaction opportunities with the teacher and peers. There are three factors that affect cognitive ability:
Verbal memory
Auditory perception
Categorization
Teachers have to make sure they address each student's learning style, so all of the students can reach their full potential. Also, it is said that students with a lower cognitive ability have the capability of acquiring a second language , but their proficiency levels will be equal to even lower than those in their native language. The Horizontal Continuum Left side= gives lots of visual aides, clues and gestures.
Right side= very little clues; more oral or written communication; activities challenge students academically The Vertical Continuum Top= activities that don't involve a high degree of cognitive challenge.
Bottom= more abstract and cognitively demanding (standardized tests). Quadrant A would be the easiest for second language learners. It consists of activities rely on many visual clues and less academic language.
Quadrant D consists of the most common instructional tasks which do not use any visual clues. Also, it consists of tasks such as writing compositions, understanding math problems, and reading text without pictures. Important Information: In the Classroom:
How to Facilitate SLA Allow open communication for all students in order to promote active learning Incorporate active, hands-on learning into all lessons. Make small groups heterogeneous - mix gender, race, and native vs. non-native speakers Have a "Culture Day"- each students gives a presentation about themselves and their culture.
This will allow the ELL students to practice their English speaking skills
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