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Golgi Apparatus

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by

Adrianna Brouwer

on 15 October 2013

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Transcript of Golgi Apparatus

Golgi Apparatus

Function:
The Golgi Apparatus is in control of protein and lipid movement and synthesis
It develops, packages, and dispenses molecules from the eukaryotic cell
The cisternae in the cell receives the newly synthesized proteins from the ER
Cisternae
Cisternae is a sac/cavity that has fluid inside of it
They occur between the membranes of flattened sacs
It modifies proteins into the last products
There is 3 different types of cisternae: cis (beginning of the formed cisternae), medial (maturing of the cisternae), and trans (enzymes travel through vesicles and then move from old cisternae, to new cisternae)
They can be different shapes, sizes, and numbers
Can have 40-100 stacks of cisternae in an average cell
Each cisterna has different protein enzymes, which eliminates or adds extra sugars, phosphate, or sulfate from the proteins

Molecules and Eukaryotic cell
A eukaryotic cell is found in plant and animal cells
It has a nucleus because it contains genes, which determines the physical characteristics of us
The Golgi apparatus dispenses molecules to make sure they go to the right place in the cell so they can do their specific function
Without the molecules being developed, packaged, and dispensed, there would be malfunctions in the cell that could result in a lot of diseases, because without it the molecules wouldn't preform the right function; so it would be useless

Without the Golgi apparatus, the cell wouldn't be able to perform its duties . Even though the ribosomes create the molecules, it would be useless because the molecules would either be wasted, or go to the incorrect place in the cell.
Protein and Lipid Movement and Synthesis
The endoplasmic reticulum makes the proteins that the Golgi apparatus sends out to the cells
The side of the Golgi body that faces the ER are where the proteins enter, and then they exit on the side thats facing the plasma membrane
By: Adri and Emily
The Golgi Apparatus... Team Player?
In order for the Golgi apparatus to operate, it does need the endoplasmic reticulum. Most of the organelles are essential for the cell to work properly.
Just like lysosomes need the Golgi Apparatus to label proteins, the Golgi Apparatus needs the ER because the proteins and lipids are built there. The Golgi Apparatus sends them off to their proper destinations
If a part of the Golgi Apparatus somehow fails, it can lead to: congenital glycosylation disorders, muscular dystrophy, diabetes, cancer, and cystic fibrosis
The Golgi apparatus is very important because it processes proteins for secretion
Without the Golgi Apparatus, we would lose all our DNA (because it's made of protein). Also, without the Golgi Apparatus our cells would have distorted shapes because of the bi lipid layer in the cell membrane --> that lipid turns into energy
Basics
In charge of packaging cells for secretion
Found in both plant and animal cells
Major site of carbohydrate synthesis (breaks down carbs into sugars called glycosaminoglycans, polysaccharides, and proteoglycans)
It is a structure of membrane bound sacs
The Golgi Apparatus modifies the carbs of glycoproteins (stabilizes protein; made up of protein and carbs), and then it creates polysaccharides (long chain sugars --> Ex. starch)
The Golgi apparatus is often described as a post office because the macromolecules come in just like the mail does, and then it ships them off to their proper destinations
How does the proteins get from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus?
Proteins and lipids are constructed in the ER, and then they are released as vesicles and move through the cytoplasm. When they get to the Golgi Apparatus, the vesicles then fuse with the Golgi membranes and discharge their molecules into it. The molecules are then examined, packaged, and shipped off to its final destination
http://www.johnkyrk.com/golgiAlone.html
The Golgi Apparatus is in between the ER and the plasma membrane because it recieves the proteins from the ER, and then releases its vesicles to the plasma membrane for easy transport to the different organelles.
The End
Full transcript