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British Taxation and the Colonial Response - Causes of the American Revolution (1763-1776)

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Jerrid Harris

on 2 November 2015

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Transcript of British Taxation and the Colonial Response - Causes of the American Revolution (1763-1776)

British Taxation

and the
Colonial Response

Causes of the
Am
eri
can
Rev
olu
tion

The Roots of the Revolution:
What were the

most direct

causes of discord between authorities and colonists?
Provide

evidential proof

of this.

American "
republicanism
": a just society in which all citizens willingly subordinated their private, selfish interests to the common good. By its nature,
it is opposed to hierarchical and authoritarian institutions such as aristocracy and monarchy.
The Deep...Deep...Roots...like...Way Deep...
Even Deeper Roots
radical Whigs:
published colonial "literature" that warned citizens to be on guard against corruption and to be vigilant against conspiracies that could rob them of their hard earned liberties.
Together, with republicanism, the Americans were predisposed to being on "trigger alert" against any threat to their rights as "Englishmen."
The Economics of
Mercantilism
Even though none of the colonies were planted by the English crown...British authorities still justified their supreme economic control over the colonies...this control was enforced by the
Navigation Laws
"We have on old mother that peevish is grown;
She snubs us like children that scarce walk alone;
She forgets we're grown up and have a sense of our own."
-BEN FRANKLIN (1775)
British Action:
Proclamation of 1763:
forbid colonists from migrating west of the Appalachians...
what was the motive behind this proclamation?
Colonial Response
Wholesale flouting of royal authority as thousands of wagons began to rolled through frontier towns on their way out west.
British Taxes

Sugar Act (1764)

- First law by Parliament that raised tax revenue for the crown...increased duty on foreign sugar
Quartering Act (1765)

- Required colonists to provide food and quarters for troops
Stamp Act (1765)

- raised revenue to support the military force in the colonies...tax on trade items, paper, documents, playing cards, pamphlets, newspapers, and marriage licenses
Admiralty Courts
- Offenders were trialed without juries, and the burden of proof was on the accused
Conditions Worse
Declaratory Act (1766)

- reaffirmed Parliament's "right" to bind, tax, and legislate law within the colonies

Townshend Acts (1767)
- duty (tax) on glass, lead, paper, paint, and
TEA
that was to be collected at American Ports
The Boston Massacre
March 5th, 1770
Committees of Correspondence
- Organized in Boston by Samuel Adams as a means to spread the spirit of resistance by exchanging letters that would keep opposition alive in America...they would evolve into the first American congresses.
"Intolerable Acts" (1774)
- Legislative power was stripped in the colonies, British officials accused of killing colonists were now put on trial in London, the Boston port was closed until the tea was paid for, the Quartering Act was re instituted.
"Quebec Act" (1774)
- protected French settlers, their customs, religion, etc.. and expanded the Quebec territory into North America.
The Boston Tea Party (December 16th, 1773)
-
First Continental Congress (1774)
-Met in Philadelphia to consider ways of addressing grievances.
-12/13 colonies were represented
-Notable attendees:
Samuel Adams, John Adams, George Washington, and Patrick Henry
-Deliberations lasted 7 weeks
-Creations of the Congress:
"
Declaration of Rights
"
"
The Association
" - called for complete boycotts of British goods
"The Shot Heard 'round the World"
-British troops near Boston were sent to seize stores of colonial gunpowder and to arrest Sam Adams and John Hancock.
-They were met by colonial militia "minute men" in a field in Lexington Massachusetts
"By the rude bridge that arched the flood, Their flag to April's breeze unfurled, Here once the embattled farmers stood, And fired the shot heard 'round the world.
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Concord Hymn (1837)
- Met in May, 1775 in Philadelphia
- Named George Washington as the General of the
Continental Army
- Adopted the
Olive Branch Petition
- a last ditch attempt for peace, the colonies professed their loyalty
- Significant Literature surrounding the Congress
"
Common Sense
" - Thomas Paine
"
Declaration of Independence
" - Thomas Jefferson
The 2nd Continental Congress
"No Taxation Without Representation"
Stamp Act Congress (1765)
- Held in Albany, NY. 27 delegates from 9 colonies drafted a statement of
"Rights and Grievances"
that were sent to the King. (Written by John Adams)
non-importation agreements
- "
boycotts
" against British goods. Americans united to make "homegrown" goods
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
-

rebellious organizations that "tarred and fathered" unpopular officials, ransacked their houses, confiscated their money and spread seditious literature throughout the colonies.
Stamp Act Congress
What was the Stamp Act Congress and why was it important? The Stamp Act Congress, or First Congress of the American Colonies, was a meeting held between October 7 and 25, 1765 in New York City. The men who attended the meeting consisted of representatives from 9 of the British Colonies in North America. The objective of the representatives was to devise a unified protest against new British taxation - specifically the Stamp Act of 1765.
The Continental Association
, often known simply as the "
Association
", was a system created by the First Continental Congress in 1774 for implementing a trade boycott with Great Britain. The Colonists hoped that by imposing economic boycotts, they would pressure Great Britain into redressing the complaints of the colonies, and in particular repealing the Intolerable Acts passed by the British Parliament. The Association aimed to alter Britain's policies towards the colonies without severing allegiance.

The
boycott
became operative on December 1, 1774.
The Association
was fairly successful while it lasted. Trade with Great Britain fell sharply, and the British responded with an attempt to
confiscate all weapons from colonial munitions storage's.
The outbreak of the war in Boston effectively superseded the attempt to boycott British goods.
"Parliament Debates the Stamp Act"
"Colonists Respond to Stamp Act Repeal"
"Colonists Respond to
Stamp Act"
"Letters from A
Pennsylvania Farmer"
"That worst of plagues, the detested Tea"
"Colonists Respond to
the Coercive Acts"
"Petition to King George III"
"1st Continental Congress
The Bill of Rights"
Full transcript