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eury sociology

on 20 January 2018

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design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
theorizing urbanism
What is a city?

recent marxist theories of urbanism
has to be analysed in relation to major patterns of political and economic dynamics. i.e.

Modern City
first cities go back to 3500 BC
Babylon 2000 BC; population 15,000-20,000
Rome 1st BC; population 300,000

ancient city design:
protected by walls
Upper class lives at the center
city/rural sharp distinction
urbanization is a global process
In 1950s 30% of world population was living in cities
By 2000 the rate is 47%
By 2030 the prediction is 60%
Urban trends in industrial contexts
: phenomenon of 1950s and 1960s in the U.S.; it means the growth of the suburban areas--rise of Bilkent, Umitkoy, Yasamkent etc.

suburbanization was caused by federal governmental incentives to encourage suburban growth and a phenomenon dubbed "white flight" where white residents sought to distance themselves from racial minorities in urban areas.

White flight
refers to the large-scale migration of whites from racially mixed urban regions to more racially homogenous suburban areas.
Max Weber's "The City": development of cities changed the social as well as the physical environment.
1. medieval city: fusion of fortress (independence) and market (central to the rise of capitalist economies)-->network of independent cities-->internationalist capitalist trading; the medieval city while fostering trade inhibited the capitalist transformation of production (guilds regulations etc); in harmony w/ nature
2. the industrial city: (19th century): urbanization; centers of industrial production; incorporated by nation state; shaping the nature; collective consumption of services provided by the state
3. the consumer city: centers of consumption at global and local levels
Georg Simmel (1858-1918) German (pessimistic) - micro-sociological The metropolis and Modern Life
Considered importance of urban experience, i.e. chose to focus on urbanism (life within the city) rather than urbanization (development of urban areas), "The Metropolis and Mental Life" is an essay detailing his views on life in the city, focusing more on social psychology

Unique trait of modern city is intensification of
nervous stimuli
with which city dweller must cope

In rural setting rhythm of life and sensory imagery is more slow, habitual and even, in the city there is constant
bombardments of sights, sounds and smells
for simmel the city 'is not a spatial entity with social consequences, but a sociological entity that is formed spatially'.
The Chicago School:
group of sociologists from University of Chicago e.g. Robert Park, Ernest Burgess and Louis Wirth.
segmental relations in the city:
a section of personality can be known-

urban society is weakly integrated; people living in the city are more prone to suicide, depression, mental breakdowns.
pj harvey-the mess we're in
impact of urbanization is not limited with the city
While other members of the Chicago School focused on understanding the shape of the city - how they came to be internally divided - Wirth was more concerned with urbanism as a distinct way of life-as a form of social existence.
In city there are '
secondary contacts
'--impersonal interactions with
salespeople in shops, cashiers in banks or ticket collectors on trains are passing encounters entered into not for their own sake, but for instrumental reasons WHEREAS in community there is '
primary contacts
' of familial and strong community relationships.
urbanism as a way of life
urban ecology
Coined concept of Human Ecology as a perspective that attempts to apply biological processes/concepts to the social world since they argued that the city and life in the city is a product of competition in the natural environment/
1. City is a closed and functional system (community) that could be treated as an organism or "superorganism"--> organic analogy

Societies tend to develop along the shores of rivers, on fertile plains or at the intersection of trading routes or railways. Patterns of location, movement and relocation in cities, according to the ecological view, take a similar form.

Darwin's theory of natural selection is applied to the social life of the city: within the city scarce resources are competed for by varying social groups. The social groups who adapt best to the urban environment become the most dominant groups.

2.Park et al. (1925) employed ecological concepts such as
succession, competition and invasion
to describe stages of human community structure (organization) and function (processes). indicators of social disorganization such as disease, crime vice, insanity, and suicide (Burgess, 1925) are studied as well.

3. Park and his colleagues focused on the spatial and temporal dimensions of the city.
Historical background and themes of Chicago School
The influential years of the Chicago School: from 1900s till late 1950’s (the first World War and the end of the Great Depression)-- periods of great growth and change.

One significant trend during this period was the intensified population shift from the rural, homogeneous, agrarian community to the vast, heterogeneous, industrial metropolis. Chicago during this time period emerged as an “
” metropolis.

features of the sociological studies of Chicago School:

1. qualitative methodologies-fieldwork
2. avoids the study of
capitalism, focuses on city as if it is a natural organism

The Burgess Urban Land Use Model
concentric circles and expansion

Cities grow and develop outwardly in concentric circles, i.e. continuous outward process of competition/invasion/succession
The jobs, industry, entertainment, administrative offices, etc. were located at the center in the CBD.
zone development resulted from competitive processes, i.e. competition for best location in the city and

1. Commercial Business center
2. Inner city
3. Inner suburbs
4. Outer suburbs
5. Commuter zone/urban rural fringe
vienna concentric circles
Chicago School in 1950s
Amos Hawley (1950, 1968) revived urban ecology approach. Rather than concentrating on competition for scarce resources, Hawley emphasized the interdependence of different city areas. Differentiation - the specialization of groups and occupational roles - is the main way in which human beings adapt to their environment. Groups on which many others depend will have a dominant role, often reflected in their central geographical position.

Business groups, for example, like large banks or insurance companies, provide key services for many in a community, and hence are usually to be found in the central areas of settlements.

METU campus initiates the urban settlement around. shops, dormitories, services for students, restaurants around metu etc. were established

The zones which develop in urban areas arise from relationships not just of space, but also of time. Business dominance, for example, is expressed not only in patterns of land-use, but also in the rhythm of activities in daily life - an illustration being the rush hour. The ordering in time of people's daily lives reflects the hierarchy of neighborhoods in the city.

criticize Chicago School!
David Harvey
Manuel Castells
Karl Marx.
Urbanism is one aspect of the created environment brought about by the spread of industrial capitalism.
the space is continually restructured
by large business and governments

European thinkers such as Weber, Marx, and Simmel viewed the city as an environment where larger social forces of capitalism
played themselves out in a human drama, Chicago school sociologists avoided the study of capitalism per se, preferring
biologically based way of conceptualizing urban life.

urbanism is a product of large population size, density and heterogeneity.

The larger the population, the greater the chances for diversity and individualization
Competition and formal mechanisms of social control would replace primary relations of kinship as a means of organizing society.
The larger the population, the greater the specialization and functional diversity of social roles.
• Anonymity and fragmentation of social interactions increase with size.
The effect of density:
1. Greater density intensifies the effects of large population size.
2. Greater density produces greater tolerance for living closely with
strangers, but also greater stress.
3. Escape from density produces development of the fringe and
greater land value in suburbia.
4. Density increase competition, compounding the effects of size.
The effect of heterogeneity
1. The greater the heterogeneity more tolerance among groups.
2. Heterogeneity allows ethnic and class barriers to be broken down.
3. Individual roles and contacts become compartmentalized
according to different circles of contacts. Anonymity and
depersonalization in public life increase.
the effect of size
Ferdinand Tonnies (1855-1936) German (pessimistic) - macro-sociological
· Considered social structure of city
· Defined and described two basic organizing principles of human association or two contrasting types of human social life, a typology with a continuum of pure type of settlement:

(community): characterized country village. People in rural village have an essential unity of purpose, work together for the common good, united by ties of family (kinship) and neighbourhood, land worked communally by inhabitants, social life characterized by intimate, private and exclusive living together, members bound by common language and traditions, recognized common goods and evils, common friends and enemies.

(association): characterized large city. City life is a mechanical aggregate characterized by disunity, rampant individualism and selfishness, rational, calculating acts. meaning of existence shifts from group to individual. Each person understood in terms of a particular role and service provided;

resembles the Gemeinschaft in so far as the individuals peacefully live together yet whereas in Gemeinschaft people are united in spite of all separating factors, in Gesellschaft people are separated in spite of all uniting factors

“The Metropolis and Mental Life,”--Die Großstadt und das Geistesleben; Buyuksehir ve Ruhsagligi ehehe--Simmel's essay

certain features of the modern metropolis makes city
t from all prior forms of social organization.

Life in the metropolis requires that people engage in social interactions with
numbers of different people. It also requires that they carry on their social life with a good deal more
than other forms of settlement. Urbanites highly attuned to time

Acknowledged freedom, transcendence of pettiness of daily routine, new heights of personal and spiritual development but sense of alienation could override this

People tend not to know one another as individuals but, rather, as passersby or mere acquaintances. The consequence of all such relationships was to give life in the modern metropolis an air of anonymity.

To maintain sense of individuality and not feel like cog in machine, do something different or odd to stand out

Rationality expressed in advanced economic division of labour, and the use of money because of requirement for a universal means of exchange. The characteristic type of relationship in the metropolis: r
elationship between the customer and clerk in a business exchange.

Both treat one another
as intimates but, rather, simply as people engaged in business with one another.

The impersonal and instrumental qualities of such relationships ---essential features of the modern metropolis.

limited with the American city
exaggeration of impersonality in cities; continuity of friendships or kinship links
unlike simmel wirth conducted empirical research
he points out positive aspects of city life as well
urbanism, or urbanization, produced any of several important social consequences among people: (1)
in everyday life, (2)
loss of trust
among people, and (3) various forms of
social disorganization
, as in higher rates of crime than in rural areas
Human Ecology
The human ecology perspective
was especially focused on the ways in which the population
of areas expanded or declined. It concentrated its attention
on how the change of specific areas of the city occurred,
and which economic social actors were winners and losers
in the process. Any of several outcomes could happen, Park
believed—among them, conflict, accommodation, and in
certain cases, assimilation by the newcomers of the cultural
patterns of the natives.
what does the "modern" city do to us?
what are the advantages of living in a city? disadvantages?
should we go back to our village?
germans love rural life
why do people try being exotic or noticeable in cities?
The German thought had an impact on Chicago School with refugee scholars
two aspects underlined by the Chicago School in city studies
land, culture and population are viewed as a inseparable whole.

Burgess: one of the main proponents of this geographically based exploration and gradually developed a theory of ever expanding, or maturing, concentric circles of land use within the city.
See Burgess
The notion of an ecological niche, or “natural area.” Wirth describes the concept simply as “each area in the city being suited for some one function better than any other.
students live in 100. Yil because it is close to METU
The model assumes a relationship between the socio-economic status (mainly income) of households and the distance from the Central Business District (CBD). The further from the CBD, the better the quality of housing, but the longer the commuting time. Thus, accessing better housing is done at the expense of longer commuting times (and costs)
1. ignores the impact of city planning and other dynamics. what about laz müteaahhitler, architects, capital owners, governmental authorities, such as Melih Gokcek?
2. the model is American. it is developed on the basis of American cities and may not be relevant for other cities in Europe or Asia or even Latin America.
3. ignores the fact that city life not only is an experience of massivity and anonymity but also is an experience of different cultures. multiplicity of subcultures in cities. Ankara corumlular dernegi?
4. the city life also offers and supports personal relations
urbanism is not a
urbanism denotes construction of cities but also the rural area.
In traditional societies, city and countryside were clearly differentiated.
In the modern world, industry blurs the division between city and countryside. With mechanized agriculture differences in modes of social life between urban and rural people decreased.
david harvey
The suburbanization of Chicago or other cities in 1950s is not a natural process of moving out of the cities of upper classes
factors that contribute to this development:
1. diversity policies; mingling of white and black people in cities
2. governments' providing incentives to move out the city
3. credits provided by financial institutions

increased car sales
transportation needs
growth of construction sector
crises of capitalism
to understand the city we have to understand processes (power politics and struggles) that create and transform spatial forms
urban environments represent symbolic and spatial manifestations of broader social, political and economic forces
cathedrals of the period of rising capitalism

the physical shapes of cities is product of both market forces and power of government
the city is also an integral part of processes of collective consumption
urbanisation and social movements
Manuel Castells
urbanism and social movements
since urban life brings about problems of housing, air pollution, environmental issues, lack of facilities protests have been organized over different parts of the world.
a common pattern in these movements is anger; the repressor is fear. In each movement, fear was overcome by individuals sharing in the outrage
The shape of these recent social movements is defined by the Internet.
It does not create social movements. Rather, today’s social movements are defined by the new forms of the Internet, specifically the shift from mass communication to mass self-communication. Mass self-communication reaches everywhere and operates independently of ruling authorities. These movements are leaderless. They do not need control centers. And they are impervious to destruction. As Castells says, you may kill the messenger, yet the message lives on in the network. He describes the networks as “
”: they are underground, they emerge, they go down, and are connected all the time.
modern cities in industrialized countries--up to 20 million people
a chain of roughly adjacent metropolitan areas. first used for Northeastern conurbation in the US-->from Boston to Washington DC--40 million people
conurbation/metrapolitan area
: group of cities and towns forming an economic, political network; San Francisco Bay area
where is the greatest rate of urbanization taking place?
in developing or developed countries?
Urban trends in industrial contexts
inner city decay
: a result of the growth of suburbs
UC moves away from the city center--> tax rates decline-->unemployment increases-->crime rate increases-->empty buildings--> occupations by minorities or underclass
riots and urban unrest
detroit riot 1967
paris riot 2005
london riots 2011
Urban trends in industrial contexts
urban renewal
: grants for rehabilitation of houses and the renewal of city centers
: renovation of buildings in
neighborhoods for the purpose of opening them to the use of UC.
why the need for gentrification?
1. demographic reasons: young childless couples, working people need to be closer to the city center

2. transformation of urban economy: from manufacturing to service industries

3. dynamics of capitalism
results of gentrification
residents' living standards do not change

they are mostly forced to move out.

think about sulukule etc.
Urbanization in developing world:
Manuel Castells--
: one of the main features of 3rd millennium urbanization

cities with population over 10 million people

condensed areas of people; they constitute connection points for global economy

Hong Kong; Sao Paolo, İstanbul
an inhabited central place differentiated from a town or village by its greater size, and
by the range of activities practised within its boundaries, usually religious, military- political, economic, educational and cultural. Collectively, these activities involve the exercise of power over the surrounding countryside. (lary and Jary 1999: 74)
why development and use varied over the city? Why Kizilay became the city center in 1970s and why it is not anymore? What about Taksim? What about Genclik Parki?

why certain areas of the city attracted specific populations and exhibited particular patterns of use? Why Roma people live in Sulukule? Why Kurdish migrants live in Kadifekale? Why do some people live in Umitkoy? Why 100. Yil is a settlement for young people? Why some chose to stay in the City in New York while others settle in Brooklyn?

Why there is decay and why there is stability? What happens to the decaying areas?

Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels - macro-sociological
· People in preindustrial, traditional societies were generic, tribal beings
· Rise of city was transition from barbarism to civilization
· People realize political and economic freedom, productive specialization
· Social evolution of humans not complete until capitalism was transformed into socialism
· Emphasis of economics and problems of inequality and conflict
blase attitude

Max Weber (1864-1920) German - macro-sociological
· Considered social structure of city
· Ecological-demographic characteristics: the city was a relatively closed and dense settlement
· Undertook survey of various cities throughout world unlike previous theorists who focused on European cities solely
· Same as with Marx & Engels argued that human condition of cities was result of economic structure- cities are linked to larger processes, e.g. economic or political orientations

rural: unregulated by the state, traditional
urban: rational, bureaucratic, planned
a social reserve, a detachment,
respond with head rather than heart
, don’t care and don’t get involved, '
' attitude.

ex. indifference to beggars; street musicians
harvey's key concepts:

: a reaction to the rising social movements of the 1960s and 1970s and is about to re-establish the bourg. class power.

acccumulation by dispossession
mülksüzleştirerek birikim
: a centralization of wealth and power in the hands of a few by dispossessing the public of their wealth or land by four practices: 1.
, 2.
, 3.
management and manipulation of crises
, and 4.
state redistribution

a city is the geographical and social center of the concentration of surplus value.
an idea and a slogan first proposed by Henri Lefebvre as a "demand...[for] a transformed and renewed access to urban life".

David Harvey described it as:

The right to the city is far more than the individual liberty to access urban resources: it is a right to change ourselves by changing the city. It is, moreover, a common rather than an individual right since this transformation inevitably depends upon the exercise of a collective power to reshape the processes of urbanization. The freedom to make and remake our cities and ourselves is, I want to argue, one of the most precious yet most neglected of our human rights.
LAMEKAN: metalaşan kentin çöküsü
global city vs. megacity
Global city
: A city, such as London, New York or Tokyo, which has become an organizing centre of the new global economy.
: large, intensely concentrated
urban spaces that serve as
for the global economy.
this social psychology experiment is cla
response to city life
Considered social structure of city
Social solidarity--the bond between all individuals within a society
Developed model of contrasting social order types: both types are natural
Mechanical solidarity:
refers to social bonds constructed on likeness and largely dependent upon common belief, custom, ritual, routines, and symbol, people are identical in major ways and thus united almost automatically, self-sufficient; social cohesion based upon the likeness and similarities among individuals in a society.

Organic solidarity
: social order based on social differences, complex division of labour where many different people specialize in many different occupations, greater freedom and choice for city inhabitants despite acknowledged impersonality, alienation, disagreement and conflict, undermined traditional social integration but created a new form of social cohesion based on mutual interdependence, liberating; social cohesion based upon the dependence individuals in more advanced society have on each other. Common among industrial societies as the division of labor increases. Though individuals perform different tasks and often have different values and interests, the order and very survival of society depends on their reliance on each other to perform their specific task.
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917) French (optimistic) macro-sociological
Philosophy of Money
· Economic exchange is a form of social interaction
· Money is subject to precise division and manipulation, it permits exact measurement of equivalents--furthering rationalization characteristic of modern societies
· Money is impersonal, objects of barter are/were not

"The historical geography of capitalism has to be the object of our theorizing.”
TRANSPORTATION: “profoundly changed the rhythm and form of urban life

MEDIA “the rise of mass circulation newspapers, the advent of telegraph and telephone, or radio and television, all contributed to a new sense of simultaneity over space and total uniformity in coordinated and universally uniform time.”

MONEY “concentrates social power in space” with little restraint which in turn commodifies space such that it brings “all space under the single measuring rod of money value.”

This community of money fragments society while also subsuming other forms of solidarities. Circulation of capital or capital mobilityfunctions to destabilize identities and memberships even fragmenting protest against it, “Movements of revulsion an revolt against capitalism, its social basis or particular effects, become as diverse and incoherent as the systems they arise in opposition to.”
“Homeownership … invites a faction of the working class to wage its inevitable fight over the appropriation of value in capitalist society in a very different way. It puts them on the side of the principle of private property and frequently leads them to appropriate values at the expense of other factions fo the working class.

STATE: functions to restrain the “disintegrating tendencies of money, time and space in the face of the contradictions of capital circulation.”
In contrast to the ecologists' approach, BOTH HARVEY AND CASTELLS emphasize not on 'natural' spatial processes, but on how land and the created environment reflect social and economic systems of power.
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