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Transcript of Chapter 22
World War II and the Four Freedoms
Rise of Fascism in Europe
Fascism: A system of government marked by centralization of authority under a dictator, stringent socioeconomic controls, suppression of the opposition through terror and censorship, and typically a policy of belligerent nationalism and racism.
Why would people follow the ideas of fascism?
Why did the American people elect Franklin Roosevelt in 1932?
Rise of Imperial Japan
Japan had suffered greatly during the economic depression as well
Emperor Hirohito of Japan
Seen as the divine ruler; ruled until 1989
Heavily influenced by military leaders; most notably prime minister Hideki Tojo
Just as Hitler in Europe, Japan begins imperialistic expansion into Asia conquering Korea, parts of China, Indochina, Pacific Islands
Established the East Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere
Comparative Timeline: Germany and Japan
1931 - Manchurian Incident
1931: Launches air raids on Shanghai
1933: Massive re-armament begins
1933: Japan withdraws from League of Nations
1936: Germany re-occupies Rhineland
1938: Re-occupies the Sudetenland
1937: 2nd Sino-Japanese War begins; Rape of Nanking
1938: European leaders meet and are told by Hitler than no more expansion will occur
1939: Germany-Soviet Russia sign non-aggression pact
1940: Japan invades and occupies Indochina
The United States - Policy of Isolationism
1935: Passes Neutrality Act - no trading of war materials with any country at war
Heavily criticized by Roosevelt
1936: Expansion of Neutrality Act - no loans to countries at war
1937: Act amended to allow sale of arms to countries on a 'cash and carry' basis only
Reasons U.S. Did Not Want to Be Involved
1. Lessons for WW 1
2. Split ethnic loyalties
3. Europe's problem
4. Hitler provided buffer to Communist expansion
5. Business (Ford, Japan)
6. Unprepared military
7. Solve our own problems
The Long Lasting Effects of World War II
1. Greatly expands the size and scope of the federal government
2. Expand U.S. role internationally and permanently supplanting Great Britain as the power of democracy
3. American security becomes global and the world can only be protected by the spread of core American values.
4. Moved minority rights to the forefront of the American political agenda
5. Built an exceptionally strong base of patriotism and national unity
The Greatest Generation
"I believe this is the greatest generation that society has ever produced" - Tom Brokaw
1. Grew up in the deprivation of the Great Depression
2. Fought and won World War II
3. Established the most productive economy in world history
1. Taking personal responsibility
5. Hard working
6. Embrace challenges
7. Don't make life complicated
Expand the Size and Scope of Federal Government
U.S. as International Security Force
U.S. had history before WW2 of intervening to protect American business interests and government officials.
After World War II
Korea: 1950-53 Vietnam: 1955-1975
Formosa, China, Egypt, Lebanon, Cuba, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Dominican Republic, Israel, Congo, Iran, El Salvador, Libya, Lebanon, Egypt, Grenada, Honduras, Chad, Persian Gulf, Italy, Libya, Bolivia, Persian Gulf, Honduras, Lebanon, Panama, Libya, Liberia, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Kuwait, Zaire, Bosnia and Herzegovenia, Kuwait, Iraq, Somalia, Bosnia, Macedonia, Central African Republic, Kuwait, Bosnia, Albania, Congo, Sierra Leone, Cambodia, Iraq, Kenya, Tanzania, Afghanistan, Sudan, Liberia, East Timor, Serbia, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, Yemen, East Timor, Afghanistan, Yemen, Iraq, Liberia, Haiti, Somalia, Uganda, Jordan, Turkey, Chad, Mali, Somalia, Afghanistan
Pearl Harbor Made It Easier to Convince Americans to Go to War
Roosevelt needed to solidify American thinking
Posters, pamphlets, movies, newsreels, speeches
Mobilizing for War
-Number of federal workers increases from 1 million to 4 million
-Unemployment drops from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1943
-By 1944, American factories produced a ship every day and a plane every five minutes
-"If you are going to go to war in a capitalist country, you had better let business make money out of the process." - Secretary of War Henry Stinson
-Federal government offered low-interest loans, tax concessions, and contracts with guaranteed profits
-By the end of the war, the 200 largest companies accounted for about 50% of all corporate assets
-Government sponsored research: radar, engines, computers
-West and South boomed in the war period; 2 million moved to California; southern income rose to 70% of national average
People You Need to Know
Blitzkrieg (Lightning War)
March 7, 1936: Germany reoccupies Rhineland
October, 1936: Germany, Italy sign pact
November, 1936: Germany, Japan sign pact
March, 1937: Gallup poll: 94% of all Americans do not want to be involved in foreign wars
July, 1937: Japan provokes China into war
February, 1938: Hitler demands self-determination for 10 million Germans living in Austria and Czecholslovakia
March 12, 1938: German army marches into and occupies Austria
July, 1938: Japanese army pushes Russian army out of Manchuria and temporarily occupies parts of Siberia
September, 1938: British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain meets with Hitler; agrees not to resist German reoccupation of the Sudetenland in exchange for Hitler promising not to invade anywhere else.
Chamberlain: "Hitler appears to be a man who can be relied upon when given his word."
November, 1938: Hitler declares open season on Jews; 91 killed and 20,000 taken to prison camps as part of Reichskristallnacht (Crystal Night or Night of Broken Glass)
November, 1938: Italy takes control of Ethiopia
March, 1939: Stalin says Russia will fight only its wars
March, 1939: Gallup poll shows 99% of all Americans do not want to be involved in foreign wars
March, 1939: Coal and other fuels begin to run low in Japan
April, 1939: Italy invades and annexes Albania
April, 1939: Slovakia becomes a protectorate of Germany
April, 1939: Stalin proposes an agreement between Russia, Great Britain and France
May, 1939: Denmark accepts non-aggression pact with Germany; Sweden,Norway and Finland reject the offer
August 23, 1939: Germany, Russia sign non-aggression pact
September 1, 1939: Germany invades Poland
September 3, 1939: Great Britain declares war on Germany in defense of Poland
April 9, 1940: Germany invades Denmark, Norway
May 10, 1940: Germany invades France, Belgium, Luxembourg, The Netherlands; Winston Churchill becomes Prime Minister of Great Britain
May 15, 1940: The Netherlands surrenders to Germany
May 28, 1940: Belgium surrenders to Germany
June 10, 1940: Norway surrenders to Germany
June 22, 1940: France surrenders to Germany
The last remaining free country in Europe is England and they refuse to surrender. Germany begins nightly air raids bombing London, hoping the British will submit...
Meanwhile, the United States waits...
Until December 7, 1941...
Conscription in World War II (The Draft)
Original draft rules were that all men 18-45 were required to register; if drafted, a service period of one year in the military would be required.
1940: 67% of all Americans believed that an Axis victory in Europe would threaten the United States
71% of those surveyed favored the military draft
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, the draft rules changed
All men 18-64 were required to register and the duration of service was extended to the 'time of the war plus six months'
1942: 69% of American high school students favored mandatory military service
U.S. goal: A standing army of 9 million; required 200,000 new inductees each month for the duration of the war
50 million men were registered; 36 million were classified and 10 million were drafted
72,000 filed as conscientious objectors of which 52,000 were granted that status
Of those 52,000 objectors, 25,000 of them volunteered to serve in non-combat roles and 12,000 worked in civilian camps
16,000 draft dodgers were imprisoned
16 million Americans served in World War II
Globally, 1.9 billion people served in the war
So who does the work at home?
Number of women in the workforce goes from 20% to 37% during World War II
350,000 women serve in the Armed Forces
By the end of the war, 1 in 4 married women worked
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill