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The Mughal Empire

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by

Claire King

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of The Mughal Empire

The Mughal Empire
Economy
Decline
Sivaji Revolt
Sivaji- founder of Maratha Kingdoms (south India)
Catalyst for Mughal decline
Raided Muslim lands to the north
Attacked Surat, prized trading port, twice
Mughal rule retreated out of the West India by 1707
Territory consisted of much of India and Pakistan
Background
1526-1803
Top of the class
Emperor and his nobles
Lived in extreme luxury, with costly dress and houses
Wealth was often wasted on useless items
Middle Class
Merchants
Artisans
Traders
Lower class
This class's economic condition continued to decline throughout Mughal era
shows vast difference between social classes
Social Rules and Practices
Empire was very hospitable, and kindly greeted strangers
Widow re-marriage was not allowed
Alcohol was not a common commodity, yet upper classes enjoyed top-notch food luxury
Child marriage
Dowry
the money, goods, or estate that a woman brings to her husband in marriage
Education
Female education was present
Girls from wealthy families were privately tutored, and few middle class girls attended boy schools
One of the duties of the public works department was to build schools and colleges
Trade and Agriculture

Mughal empire encouraged overland trade between Central Asia and India

Opened up marsh-area of eastern India for colonization and trade

Drew European merchants into Occidental trade
Currency and Industry
International trade resulted in a wide range of specialization in India
Emperors
Babur
descendant of Mongol Genghis Khan
leader of several conquests into India
conquered Delhi in 1526
dreamed to build great empire like Tamerlane
created the building blocks for Mughal Empire
Akbar
Core constructor of Mughal Empire
United military by setting up campaigns
Led conquest into Hindu kingdom in South India
Religious Tolerance
Divine Faith to prevent Muslim and Hindu conflict
Aurangzeb
Last great emperor
Strict Muslim
Crushed Akbar's Religious policies and encouraged Islam
Taxed Hindus heavily
Revolts and tension inside the empire were common during his reign
Sivaji Revolt
British Intervention
1765
Last thread that held together the Mughal Empire
Allowed Bahadur Shah II, last emperor of Mughal, to remain on throne
Shah led revolt against Britain, he was banished
British deprived India of many temples, jewels, and monument
Invasion of Nadir Shah
Nadir Shah- ruler and general of Iran
Led conquest of Afghanistan and Mughal Empire
Why?
Riches from India would allow Nadir to offer incentives to his subjects
Eliminate temptation his naval troops had to plunder Iran
Mughal forces defeat on February 24, 1739 at the Battle of Karnal
Small warlords ravaged empire
Pindari
Maratha
Iranian forces

Mughal Empire is the key to a global economy
Textile Market

Textiles were main source of income in Mughal Empire
Raw materials (mostly cotton)
Fertile farmland
Textile Production altered European markets
Previously reliant on imported spices from Asia
Markets focused energy on the import and resale of Bengal textiles
Mughal Empire is the key to global trade
Maritime Trade
Before Mughal participation in maritime trade, this system was weak and inconvenient

India's dynamic efforts strengthened maritime trade
Lacked substantial clothing

Famine and disease were common
Society
Diversity and Foreign Influence
Maritime trade drew European merchants to India
Coastal regions of South India
Mughal rule was weak
North India
concentration of Mughal power
In the 1600s, European influence was present in nearly all of India's major cities.
Foreigners...
served in the Mughal armies
introduced literary styles and art forms
influenced religious beliefs
Jesuit missionaries preached and converted Europeans to Christianity
Cotton cloth was in huge demand
The Empire did not directly support Industries
instead supported by middlemen (someone who buys goods from producers and sells to consumers)
Industrialists often exploited and forced to sell at lower prices by officers and nobles
Currency
Standardized coins in gold, silver, and copper
currency was now seen as reliable source of payment
More organized economic system
Government (Political Structure)
Government Structure
Government and Political System mainly created by emperor, Akbar
Mansabdari administration system
Government's specific
roles in power
Empire sections
Excellent and fair system that promoted revenue and a sense of control for the Empire
Highest Officer was the Mughal Emperor
Government
Diwan
Bakshi
Sadir
chief revenue officer
recruited officers for army/ administration and helped with revenue system
appointed judges + gave grants to those deserving
Mansabdars, or office holders, were each given a plot of land for them to oversee and manage.
These Mansabdars collected taxes, and would be paid for that, and were required to supply the Empire with soilders and horses.
The peasants were taxed fairly and equally.
Fewer taxes in crop failure and were allowed to keep surplus goods if there was a good harvest.



sectioned into provinces, which were led by governors (appointed by Emperor)
These provinces were divided into unions of smaller villages which were led by appointers of the law and two officials (who collected taxes)
Strengths and Weaknesses
Strengths
Foreign Influence
Europeans served in military
spread of literature
spread of religion
Akbar
lay groundwork for acceptance
Mansabdari Administration System
fair taxes

Weaknesses
Aurangzeb Rule
revolts led to decline
Sivaji Revolt
Open-ness to foreign influence
Emperor struggled to unify Mughal Empire
Colliding Religions

Full transcript