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The 13 Colonies

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Kestra Mathis

on 4 September 2013

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Transcript of The 13 Colonies

The 13 Colonies
Kestra and Kate

Georgia
Background
Georgia was founded in 1732 by James Oglethorpe. It was named Georgia for the new king of England, King George.
People
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Economics of the Colony
Primary Source
Similarities and Differences
Modern Connections
North Carolina
Background
People
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Economics of the Colony
Primary Source
Similarities and Differences
Modern Connections
Significant Others
South Carolina
Background
People
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Economics of the Colony
Primary Source
Similarities and Differences
Modern Connections
Significant Others
Virginia
Background
People
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Economics of the Colony
Primary Source
Similarities and Differences
Modern Connections
Significant Others
Background
Georgia was founded on February 12, 1733 by James Oglethorpe. It had two main purposes: to serve as a place where debtors in prison could go to start a new life and it served as a barrier against Spanish expansion from Florida. Savannah was the first town settled in Georgia.
James Oglethorpe was a British general, Member of Parliament, and a philanthropist. Oglethorpe got the idea of founding Georgia due to his position on the Parliamentary committee in prison reform. He saw that debtors were being set free without punishment and felt it was a major problem in society.. So, he decided to found a place to for Britain's poor, especially those in debtors prison, to resettle.
Originally, Georgia was settled by followers of the Church of England. Eventually, Catholics and Jewish people also found their way into Savannah despite restrictions against them.
The main products of Georgia were rice, indigo, and lumber. There was also a fur trade the settled had with the natives.
On June 9, 1733, James Oglethorpe made a speech to the South Carolina Assembly thanking them for the encouragement they gave to him while forming the Georgia colony.

Oglethorpe, James. "James Oglethorpe's Speech to South Carolina Assembly, 1733 - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress." James Oglethorpe's Speech to South Carolina Assembly, 1733 - American Memory Timeline- Classroom Presentation | Teacher Resources - Library of Congress. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013
Georgia's main production was rice unlike the middle colonies which were able to grow cash crops such as corn, wheat, and fruit.
Roanoke Island, North Carolina was founded in 1584 by Sir Walter Raleigh. This colony failed, however. In the 1650s and 1660s, English settlers moved south from Virginia and established colonies in the Albemarle Borderlands region of North Carolina.
Sir Walter Raleigh, an English adventurer, writer, aristocrat, and courtier, founded the Roanake colony, but Ralph Lane, an English explorer, led the settlers.

The original settlers of Roanoke Island were Christian.
Crops in Roanoke were only grown for food for the colonists or to trade with the Indians. The island was colonized in the hopes of finding gold to bring back to the motherland. Eventually, tobacco was grown and became a major product.
John White's personal account of the colony
White, John. "Personal Narratives of North Carolina Colonies, 1575-1705." First Hand Accounts of North Carolina, 1575-1705. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2013.
The first colony settled in North Carolina failed and caused many English deaths. Colonies that were later established learned from the mistakes made at Roanoke.
Tobacco is still a major produce in modern day North Carolina
In the resupply of the colony, a pregnant woman was transported to Roanoke and gave birth to the first English person born in North America, Virginia Dare.
South Carolina was founded in1670 y 8 nobles with a royal charter from King Charles II. It was founded to produce money for the King, provide land for the Nobility, and to produce goods to the Empire such as rice, tobacco, and lumber.
Georgia produces peaches and cattle in the same local way they did in colonial times
Charleston, South Carolina, the capital city of SC, was named after King Charles II

Charles Craven was the Governor of Carolina between 1711 and 1716.
Anglican, Presbyterian, Lutheran, Catholic, and Jewish groups built churches in Charleston.
The main products of South Carolina were indigo, rice, and tobacco.
Mis, Melody S. "The Colony of South Carolina: A Primary Source History." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Sept. 2013
Tobacco was a main product like many other original southern colonies. SC also had rice crops like the other southern colonies.
South Carolina today produces tobacco and cotton like colonial SC.
Jamestown, Virginia was settled in 1607 by the Virginia Company of London. It was named for King James I. The colony was established in the expectation that the New World would produce gold. Jamestown is located on the James Island in a swamp in the James River.
Captain Christopher Newport was the captain who sailed the original colonists to James town.
John Smith led the colonists and became the reason that the settlement didn't fail.
Pocahontas was the daughter of the chief Powhatan who eventually converted to Anglicanism and married and Englishman, John Rolfe.
John Rolfe founded Virginia's tobacco industry and caused Jamestown to become productive
The original settlers were Anglicans, followers of the Church of England.
Jamestown relied heavily on tobacco production for profit. It became the major produce of Virginia.
Virginia discovered and described by Captain John Smith, 1606, graven by William Hole. John Smith. Memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/h?ammem/gmd:@field(NUMBER+@band(g3880+ct000377))
Many southern colonies relied on tobacco crops production for their main source of profit like Jamestown.
Virginia still profits off of tobacco production and trade.
House of Burgesses- 1st house of legislation in colonial Virginia that is also has the 1st appointed or elected officials in the New World government.
Maryland
Background
Maryland was founded on March 25, 1634 by George Calvert. The colony was named after Queen Henrietta Maria. The colonists settled at St. Clement's Island in southern Maryland.
People
George Calvert, 1st Baron Baltimore, was an English politician and a member of Parliament. He later became Secretary of State under King James I.
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
The colonists were Roman Catholic, following the founder of Maryland.
Economics of the Colony
Colonial Maryland produced tobacco and dairy cows along with other livestock
Primary Source
Sonneborn, Liz. "A Primary Source History of the Colony of Maryland." Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 03 Sept. 2013. <http://books.google.com/books?id=BaR_7u4FbHoC>.
Similarities and Differences
Like many other Southern Colonies, tobacco was the main source of profit for Maryland. The Colonists were also Catholics seeking religious freedom like other colonists in many of the other colonies.
Modern Connections
Tobacco and livestock are still main local production in Maryland today.
New York
Background
New York was founded in 1613 by the Dutch East India Company for trading posts but became a royal colony in 1664 when King James II granted to The Duke of York, originally named “New Netherlands” in honor of him. The original founders were the Dutch, for trading and furs, but were then given to King James II who granted it to The Duke of York. The Principle settlement between the Dutch and English empire ended with the English forcing a surrender on the Dutch, there for claiming the colony of New York under the crown, located in Albany, New York.
People
James the II was the King of The English empire at the time of colonization in New York who forced surrender on the Dutch and granted the newly claimed land to The Duke of York. James was also a strong believer in Roman Catholicism.
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Amongst the settlers there were Puritans, Catholics, and Protestants , but the true motives behind settling were for economic purposes rather than religious.
Economics of the Colony
In New York they were very fortunate in Rich and Fresh soil for crops such as wheat, rye, barley, to cattle and livestock.
Primary Source
Library of Congress. Edmund Bailey. 1861. University of Michigan. Lccn.loc.gov/12037102
Similarities and Differences
Farming is wide-spread amongst states, crops especially being rye and cattle for livestock.
Modern Connections
Modern styles of farming and agriculture derive from the past methods and continue to grow the same crops.
Significant Others
Peter Minuits, the founder of Delaware, was the 1st Governor of the Colony of New York.
Pennsylvania
Background
Pennsylvania was founded in 1681 by William Penn and other settlers of England. Charles II granted the land to Penn so he could establish the colony of Pennsylvania. Within this colony they came on behalf of religious freedoms, severing any difference in religious views or prejudices. The principle settlement was between Charles II of England and his grant to Penn. The new Colony was founded in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
People
Charles II was the king of England who at the time had an explorer named William Penn, who was an admiral in the royal navy of a very wealthy family.
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Main religion were the Quakers, New Jersey was said the be “Quakers waiting haven for religious freedom.” The Quakers came for religious freedom.
Economics of the Colony
Pennsylvania was referred to as Farmers Heaven, anyone could to Pennsylvania and get land and become someone new and make a profit off of growing crop such as corn, squash, soybeans, grains, and they made an abundant amount of bread.
Primary Source
Library of Congress. Philadelphia 1755. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.rbc./rbpe.14200200
Similarities and Differences
Apart from New jersey they relied heavily on foresting, fishing, and farming.
Modern Connections
Pennsylvania has the 4th leading agriculture in the nation, today 40% of the economy is agricultural in Pennsylvania and continue to grow cash crops.
New Jersey
Background
Founded in 1681 by Sir George Carteret, Lord Berkely, and belonged in the territory The Duke of York, given by King Charles II. The Duke of York then Sold it to Berkely and Carteret. They founded New Jersey in hopes of better trading and making a profit as well as increase farming. The Colony of New Jersey, in Jersey isle. Was settled by the Dutch first but become a royal colony under King Charles II rule
People
Was granted to Carteret and Berkely from The Duke of York who is the Brother to King Charles II. Eventually William Penn takes ownership if the colony.
Economics of the Colony
They rely heavily on farming products such as fruits and vegetables such as blueberries, peaches, asparagus, and tomatoes. They also rely on foresting for furs and fishing.
Similarities and Differences
Grow much more Fruit and rely heavily on farming but close on fishing and foresting.
Modern Connections
Less than 1% of Americans still farm in modern day “New Jersey” but still grow same products and rely on farming.
Significant Others
William Penn who is the founder of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania became owner of property in colony.
Delaware
Background
Founded in 1638 by Peter Miuits , he would become owner because of an already devised plan by Gustavo Adolphus, King of Sweden and the New Sweden company. The colony was founded for the purpose of trading and increase in profits as well as no religious prejudices. The colony was settled in Wilmington, Delaware.
People
Peter Minuits who was the 1st governor of New York who after leaving Dutch took a lead colony to Virginia, the plan being devised by Adolphus.
Religious Affiliations and Implications
Settlers were often recognized as self-identified Christians or Dutch Lutherans who previously settled in the area, but the were not compelled to profess any kind of religion.
Economics of the Colony
Up in Delaware they had a different look on agriculture, here it was comprised mainly of Fishing and manufacturing Lumber.
Primary Resources
Library of Congress. Albert Cook. New York, C. Scribmer’s Sons, 1912. http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/scd0001.00141124249
Similarities and Differences
Like New Jersey, New York, and Virginia they were big into gaining profits and selling more, however they unlike most farming countries focused on seeling lumber to build ships and buildings
Modern Connections
Continuous work on manufacturing lumber, but have also taken a farming side to the land and have grown corn, soybeans, wheat barley, melons, etc.
Rhode Island
Background
Rhode Island was first founded in 1636 by Roger Williams. Originally, it was titled Aquethneck. Rhode Island is a relatively small land mass stuck between Connecticut and Massachusetts, bordering the ocean. He founded it because he was banished from Massachusetts.
People
Roger was an English Protestant theologian who was an early proponent for the separation of church and state, and religious freedom. He started the first Baptist church in America.
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Rogers promised religious and political freedom to settlers of Rhode Island.
Economics of the Colony
Rhode Island had a large colonial base in fishing and bits of agriculture. It also specialized in tool making and jewelry
Similarities and Differences
Rhode Island was the first colony to guarantee free worship, unlike many other colonies which had set religions.
Modern Connections
Many of the main products of Colonial Rhode Island still play a large role in their modern economy today.
Connecticut
Background
Connecticut was founded in 1635-1636 by Thomas Hooker. Major notable settlements were Hatford and New Haven.The first to settle the area came from the Bay Colony and the Plymouth Colony in Massachusetts. Connecticut is located to the left of Rhode Island and to the right of New York beneath Massechusetts
People
Thomas Hooker was a well-known Puritan colonial leader, and founded Connecticut after dissenting with some of the leaders in Massachusetts. He was an outstanding speaker and leader of worldly Christian suffrage. He is titled the “Father of Connecticut” and was a very prominent figure in early colonial development , cited by many as inspirational.
Economics of the Colony
Connecticut’s industrial process relied mainly on wheat, corn, fishing, and tool making.
Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Connecticut settlers were mostly Puritans
Similarities and Differences
Connecticut relied on fur trading with the natives in the area unlike many of the other colonies which relied on natural resources or cash crops.
Modern Connections
Tool making is still a major practice in Connecticut today.
Massachusetts
Background
Massachusetts Bay was found in 1630 by John Winthrop and The Massachusetts Bay Company. He also became the 1st governor and was followed by Mr. Endicott the 2nd governor who obtained a charter from the king. The religion was comprised of pilgrims who wanted not to separate from the Church of England but wanted to modify the church. Plimoth was founded in 1620 by Separatist pilgrims from England, William Bradford became the 1st governor of Plimoth who created the Mayflower Compact and wrote the book “ of Plimoth Plantation.” Plimoth was created as a religious founding colony of separatists. The principle settlements where the colonies of Massachusetts Bay and Plimoth which were located in New England.
People
John Winthrop- was a wealthy English puritan lawyer, who was the founder of Massachusetts Bay, the first major settlement after Plimoth.
Mr. Endicott- was the 1st governor of Massachusetts Bay who received a charter from the King of England.
John Cotton- was a clergymen, preeminent minister and theologian.

Religious Affiliations/ Implications
Massachusetts Bay was comprised mainly puritan pilgrims who wanted to modify the Church of England. Plimoth was comprised of separatist who wanted to get away from the Church of England, and where very religiously driven.
Economics of the Colony
In both colonies agriculturally they both rely on fishing as a major factor, as well as growing corn and raising livestock, and manufacture lumber and shipbuilding. Mainly worked on trading furs and fish due to rock soil which made farming complicated and they could only grow very basic crops.
Similarities and Differences
Fishing and fur trading furs are also common in the colony of Maryland
Modern Connections
Today in Massachusetts a large percent of their industry is comprised from fishing and farming.
New Hampshire
Background
Was founded in 1632 by John Mason. The colony of New Hampshire was a planned colony whose purpose was to gain profit on fishing. The first governor was John Wentworth. The colony of Massachusetts was in New England.
People
John Mason- was the founder of a granted preconceived colony meant to be built as a fishing colony, after putting much work and money behind the operation he never got to see the colony he built due to dying before he saw it.
Governor John Wentworth- 1st baronet, first British colonial governor of New Hampshire.

Religious Affiliations/Implications
Mainly comprised of puritans, but was diverse due to people having left Massachusetts for religious freedom.
Economics of the Colony
They raised livestock such as cattle and chickens and grew hay for horses and a major crop was potatoes.
Similarities and Differences
In respects of livestock making dairy products no other colony has record of doing so but they are similar in respects of raising livestock.
Modern Connections
31% of the economy profits are comprised agriculturally on the production of dairy products.
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