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Transcript of 3.4.5 Urinalysis
Heidi Schneemann Activity 3.4.5: Urinalysis Patient 1 Patient 2 A thirty year old woman went to a monthly doctor check up and found out that her urine has been cloudy. Patient 3 1. The urinalysis lead me to diagnose the patient as an anorexic. The connection between the urinalysis and the disease is that the patient has an abundance of keytones in her urine which signifies significant weight loss, loss of menstrual period, hair loss, dry mouth, loosened teeth, bleeding skin, ketoacidosis (large decrease in insulin and a large increase of glucose.) Patient 4 2. The symptoms of anorexia include dramatic weight loss, fixation on body image, harshly critical of appearance, denial that you are too thin, feeling fat, despite being overweight. An 18 year old male who has been training for a marathon. Everything appears to be healthy except for abnormal amounts of protein in his urine- about 15 mg/dL. Patient 2 Proteinuria We have diagnosed Patient 2 with proteinuria, simply meaning "protein in urine." 3. When you have anorexia, your body goes into starvation mode, which slows down all bodily processes. The body will then start to consume itself. The heart is affected the most because it is made smaller and weaker. The bones are also consumed, as
well as other body organs. The consumption
of the bones begins first and can lead to disfiguration and the need for surgical replacements. Anorexia causes a low count of white
blood cells, causing the patient to be
more prone to disease. The urinalysis results revealed glucose levels were 2000 mg/dL (which would normally be 70 mg/dL or less) and a specific gravity of 1.03 (which should be 1.002-1.028). Since the patient is pregnant, the evidence of glucose in the urine points to gestational diabetes. A 15-year-old female comes in for her annual physical. Her mom informs you that she is worried because the girl has been on a strict diet and has lost a great deal of weight in the past few months. She has very little energy and does not seem interested in hanging out with her friends. The girl mentions that she has been losing some hair lately and she has not menstruated over three months. Microscopic analysis of her urine does not reveal anything abnormal. This is caused when proteins are able to leak into the filters of the kidneys (Glomerulus, etc). Patient 1 is a 40 year old woman who is overweight, 28 weeks pregnant, tired, and frequently urinating. Patient 1 Patient 2 Proteinuria Symptoms: Patient 1 Patient 1 Patient 1 The symptoms vary depending on severity.
Usually there aren't much at all, however. Patient 1 Frothy urine
Swelling in the abdomen, hands, feet, or face
Difficulty urinating Proteinuria, itself, can be a symptom or sign for kidney disease. Symptoms may include: Patient 2 Proteinuria Patient 2 Proteinuria Diabetes affects other body systems which include: Patient 2 Proteinuria -Immune System
-Nervous System (optic nerves)
-Cardiovascular System (stress on heart)
-Urinary System (kidneys) Patient 1 Patient 2 Patient 3 Patient 4 A test for gestational diabetes (or diabetes in general) is a plasma glucose test. This test accounts for the amount of glucose in blood measured in mg/dL The treatment options for gestational diabetes are: -Balanced diet (including limiting carbs)
-Regular exercise (especially if overweight or obese)
-Check blood sugar levels regularly (to ensure they are safe)
-Taking insulin shots (to stabilize blood sugar levels) -Blurred vision
-Frequent infections, including those of the bladder
-Nausea and vomiting Conclusion Question 1 Conclusion Question 2 Conclusion Question 3 Based on what you know about the function of the nephron, why should urine be free of blood cells? Based on what we have learned about the function of the nephron, urine should not have blood cells. The purpose of the nephron is to filter out the "bad stuff" like urea, uric acid, and creatinine from the blood. The "clean blood" then recirculates through the body. No where in the process is blood suppose to escape the nephron to travel out of the body through urine. The presence of blood cells in urine is an indicator of some type of infection. Patient 3 Urinalysis test -pH levels are 6.5 mg/dl
-Specific gravity was 1.005 mg
-Protein in urine ws .15 mg
- Cloudy urine
This leads to patient 3 having UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) Patient 3 Treatments Simple Infection Frequent Infection - Sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim
- Ciprofloxacin - Antibiotic treatments
- Home urine test (to chech for further infection
- A single dose of antibiotics after having sexual intercorse
- Vaginal estrogen therapy if you're postmenopausa Patient 3 Symptoms - A very bad urge to urinate
- A burning sensation when urinating
- Small amount of urine
- Cloudy Urine
- Urine that appears red, bright pink, or cola colored
- Strong-smelling Urine
- Women gets pelvic pain
- Men gets rectal pain Diagnosis A doctor can confirm if you have urinary tract infection by testing a sample of your urine. Patient 3 What is urinary tract infection UTI (Urinary Tract Infection) is a condition where one or more parts of the urinary systems becomes infected. It is the most common bacterial infection and can occur at anytime in an individual. Of course, this diagnosis mostly affects the urinary system, in that it could lead to kidney disease.
The disorder also relates to the blood, which is filtered by the kidneys. The protein actually comes from the blood. Proteinuria Basically, what happens in proteinuria is that proteins in the blood are able to pass through into the nephron due to a particular structure not working correctly. This causes for an excess amount of protein in the urine and less in the blood. ~Cardiovascular System~ What does this affect? To further test for proteinuria, you should take part in a 24-hour urine collection. This is to get an accurate account for how much protein is in the blood. You should also test for kidney disease in that it could be present.You should get a measure of the amount of creatinine being released in the urine. Also, you should get a blood test to find out if the kidneys are filtering the blood properly. Treatment is specific to the person.
Many with proteinuria also have diabetes, hypertension or kidney disease. As for our patient, I suggest monitoring the amount of protein in the blood and making sure to watch closely for kidney disease and any other abnormalities. If he has high blood pressure, and ACE inhibitor may be helpful as well. Eat Healthy!! Explain why diagnostic tests are classified as a type of medical intervention. Urinalysis is an important diagnostic tool for the determination of medical disorders. However, urinalysis has many other uses. Describe one other reason a person may have his/her urine tested. Diagnostic tests are used today to help us find medical disorders within the body. They are an intervention that allows us to look at the human body to understand it more closely. The tests allow us to study the human body in order to learn more about it for treatments and such to come. Intervention: any measure whose purpose is to improve health or alter the course of disease. http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/intervention 4. Physical exams can be used to diagnose anorexia. Laboratory tests, psychological evaluation, and some other studies will help diagnose anorexia too. 5. Treatments for anorexia include psychotherapy, cognitive- Behavioral therapy, and family therapy. There are no specific medications for anorexia, but antiedepressants, and estrogen may be used for the patients. Women also use urine tests to tell whether or not they are pregnant. Patient 3 Body system it affects Urinary tract infection affects the bladder, kidney, renal pelvis, ureter and the urethra.