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People Handling

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Shaun Durkin

on 24 January 2018

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Transcript of People Handling

Unit 2: Anatomy of, and Injury to the Spine
Unit 3: Fitness
LO6: Describe current concepts of back care to include: good back posture at home and work, awareness of the importance of being fit and flexible, understanding muscle groups relevant for manual handling, working within their capabilities and taking personal responsibility for good back care.
Carry out a range of appropriate manual handling techniques to include lifting, carrying, pushing, pulling, supporting or putting down of a load by one of more persons.
Garry MacSweeney / Tony Doyle / Judy Morrissey
Internal certification
Unit 1: Legislation
Unit 6: Basic Assistance Techniques
LO9: In relation to the handling of people, to explain the concept of balanced decision-making, infection control, challenging behaviour, critical medical emergencies, human rights and the fluctuating mobility of the person.
LO10: Apply the main principles of manual handling to a range of basic people handling techniques to include:
Guidance on the use of a wheelchair
Assist from sitting to standing and walking
Guiding the faling person to the floor
People Handling
Unit 4: Ergonics & Risk Assessment
LO7: Describe the components of a risk assessment process using the T.I.L.E. methodology.
Define the main components, normal purpose and function of the spinal column to include discs, ligaments, bones, joints, nerves and muscles;
Explain the main risk factors for back injuries related to manual handling to include the postures to be avoided; and how and why injuries commonly occur.
manual handling
Explain the main components of relevant health and safety legislation and guidance documents to include the current
manual handling of loads regulations
Discuss the health and organisational benefits of an
integrated approach
to the management of manual handling to include manual handling organisational procedures, staff consultation, risk assessments, implementation of appropriate controls and relevant training.
The Safety, Health & Welfare at Work (General Application) Regulations 2007, Chapter 4, regulations 68 and 69 apply to manual handling in the workplace
An integrated approach to the management of manual handling
(Rehab Group Safety Statement)
Lower back pain affects approximately 80% of the population at some stage in their lives. Health care costs and the cost of sick leave and early retirement because of back pain are estimated at €800 million.
Our ability to move rests upon our use of the muscles and bones which constitute our musculoskeletal system. This system gives us our form and shape and provides our bodies with support and stability. It is responsible for bodily movements.
The Skeleton
Central region (skull, ribs, spine, pelvis) provides support and protection
Outer region (arms and legs) allows movement
Spinal column:
33 irregular shaped bones (vertebrae)
Lumber region most often
Injured when handling loads
Sacro-iliac joint (Pregnancy)
Keep spine in natural s-shape position
So that trunk is in alignment
With minimal pressure on joints & soft tissue
Lumbar spine
5 Vertebrae
Joined by discs & facet joints
Considerable movement
Takes most of the force acting on the spine
Unit 5: Principles of Lifting
Decision Making
Unit 1: Legislation
Unit 2: Anatomy of, and Injury to the Spine
Unit 3: Fitness
Unit 4: Ergonomics & Risk Assessment
Unit 5: Principles of Lifting
Unit 6: Basic Assistance Techniques

'Recent statistics from the Health and safety Authority (2007) indicate that, consistent with previous years,
approximately one third
of all reported work-related incidents are triggered by maual handling'
The Health and Safety Authority commissioned a number of research reports into the costs of accidents in the workplace (Millward Brown 2005, Dalley 2004, Mottiar 2004).

The most recent report looked at the costs and effects of accidents using 20 case studies (Hrymak and Perezgonzalez 2007). Nine case studies focused on healthcre workers.

Only one of the nine healthcare studies looked at a manual handling incident. In this case
the cost to the employer was €12,328
and the
cost to the employee was €10,180
The report states that these figures are probably an underestimation of the true costs, both direct and indirect.

What is manual handling?
Manual Handling is the transporting or supporting of a load by one or more people and includes carrying, lifting, pushing, pulling, or holding.
And which by means of its characteristics or of unfavourable ergonomic conditions, involves risk, particularly of back injury
To prevent back injury & its consequences:
Pain & decreased mobility
Affects hobbies, family & social life
Financial consequences if unable to work
Why attend this training?
take appropriate organisational measures, or use the appropriate means, in particular, mechanical equipment,
to avoid the need for the manual handling of loads
, by the employer's employees;
where the need for the manual handling of loads cannot be avoided:
take appropriate organisational measures, use appropriate means or provide the employer's employees with such means in order to
reduce the risk involved
in the manual handling of such loads to
the risk factors specified in Schedule 3
organise workstations
in such a way as to make safe handling as safe and healthy as possible;
ensure that
particularly sensitive groups of employees are protected
ensure that where tasks are entrusted to the employee, his or her
in relation to safety and health are taken into account;
ensure that those who are are involved in the manual handling of loads receive general indications and, where possible,
precise information
on the weight of each load; and the centre of gravity on the heaviest side when a package is eccentrically loaded
Duties of the employer
80-90% of population will suffer with back pain
1/3 of all injuries reported to HSA are caused by manual handling
Many injuries build up over a period of time rather than as the result of one incident
Early return to work key to recovery
Prenant, Post-Natal and Breastfeeding Employees
Physical Hazard - Manual Handling
spongy centre
tough outer layer
80% water
no blood supply
absorbs shock
gives flexibility to the spine
allows space for nerves to emerge
Effects of Movement on the Disc
Pressure increases towards the back of the spine when bending forwards and to the front when bending backwards.
Postures to be avoided:-
Facet joint
A joint is where 2 bones meet
A ‘facet joint’ is formed when the vertebrae interlock with the one above & below
Take approx. 20% of the force on the spine
These joints are prone to wear & tear (Arthritis)
Soft tissue: ligaments
Taut bands of fibrous tissue
Flexible but not elastic (Avoid over-stretching)
Poor blood supply (Heal very slowly)

Muscle Structure
Muscles composed of bundles of fibres
Ability to shorten & lengthen produces movement

Muscles work: Dynamically and statically

Course Objectives
Participants will be able to:
Define the term Manual Handling
Understand the legislation that governs Manual Handling, primarily the Manual Handling Regulations 1993 & The Safety Health & Welfare at Work Act 2005 & 2007.
Be able to list & apply the 8 Principles of Safer Manual Handling.
List the 4 basic elements of a Risk Assessment
Demonstrate inanimate Safe Handling

Duties of the Employee

Take care of one’s own health & safety & that of others
Co-operate with the employer
Attend training & undergo assessment
Use P.P.E. provided (personal protective equipment)
Report safety defects (systems/equipment)
Not be under the influence of an intoxicant that may endanger themselves or others

Postures to be Avoided
Avoid Stooping
Bend knees & Keep back in natural position
Disc Degeneration
Soft Tissue: Muscle
Muscles work:
Dynamically and statically

Affects of Disc Degeneration
Slack Ligaments
Slipped Disc
Lifting Techniques
Straight Lifting
Avoid stooping & Twisting
Bone Injury
Arthritis (Wear & tear)
Incorrect movements done repetitively

Sacro-iliac joint
(Ligaments slacken)
(Pregnant women be careful as ligaments slacken)

What is to be Learnt?
As we do not always initially feel pain, when we cause damage to our spine, we may think all is o.k.

But …….

Injuries can build up over time.
Bad postures and bad handling techniques may cause problems later on in life.

Fitness for Work
What is fitness?
Muscles relevant to manual handling
Safety when exercising
Benefits of fitness
Stretch break, How to use large leg muscles for manual handling (weight transference/ ankle, knee & hip movements)

What is Fitness
“Ability to do ones daily work with enough energy left over”

Aerobic (Heart & lungs)

Ear should be over the shoulder
Shoulder should be over the hip
Hip should be over the knee
Knee should be over the ankle

Benefits of Exercise
More stamina and energy
Decreased risk of injury
Improved mental alertness
Improved sense of well-being

Relevant Muscle Groups

Quadriceps (Thighs)
Abdominals (Stomach)

Elements of Stretching
Warm up/cool down
Avoid sudden jerky movements
Stretch to point of slight discomfort
Hold stretch for 30 seconds x 3 times
Stretch for minimum of 6 weeks to restore some flexibility

Ergonomics aims to
“fit the job, environment and equipment to the person”
instead of making the person fit the above (e.g. car, sports equipment, kitchen design.
This will ensure that work is done in a way that minimises physical and mental effort while maximising efficiency.

Risk Factors:Where, why & how to avoid at work?
Holding Away from Body
You Must Assess Your Job To See If You Are Capable Of Doing It Safely
- Task


- Individual

- Load

- Environment

Benefits of Ergonomics
If you assess your job, you will be…
Better able to recognise potentially harmful tasks
Safer – decreased risk of injury
More comfortable – more energy, less stress
More efficient & productive

Risk Assessment of Self
As a care giver:
What are your capabilities?
Are you physically able to assist the service user
Are you dressed for the job
Proper foot wear (as per RehabCare safety statement)
Beware of environmental hazards i.e. loose carpets, rugs, sharp objects, clothing, dirt, rodents, pets, other house users.
Client Handling Risk Assessments
Area to be covered by assessment to establish the risk of falling to include:
Previous history of falling
Cognitive understanding
what is the persons level of understanding of what is expected of him/her and how much co-operation is he/she able to give.
Physical and Mental co-ordination (i.e. alert and not confused)
Weight bearing abilities including balance, strength,
Medical condition, spasticity (or sudden muscle movement )
Walking aids used e.g. walking frames, walking sticks, calliper
Safer Handling Principles
Assess (TILE) Know your own capabilities
Broad Base
Bend Knees/ use weight transference
Good Back Posture (Neutral position & avoid combined bending & twisting)
Good Grip (Palmer/elbows tucked in)
Get Close To The Load
Move smoothly & keep head up
Move with feet (don’t twist)

Risk Assessment Process
Step 1
Gather Information about the task i.e. What the manual handling task entails

Step 2
List any issues with the load i.e. Weight of load, shape of load etc.

Step 3
Assess using T.I.L.E.

Step 4
Reduce risk where possible i.e. Introduce a piece of equipment or increase staff ratios

Team Handling
Be aware of limitations of team handling
Work with people of similar height

the manoeuvre
Appoint a
Agree a

To ensure a smooth co-ordinated movement (Ready, Steady lift.. pull…lower etc.)

Sitting to Standing
Full transcript