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The Plant Cell is like a City

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Tiah Booker

on 19 September 2014

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Transcript of The Plant Cell is like a City

New Cell City
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
A plant cell is very much like a city due to all the parts that work together to help it run. Like a city, all these parts are important and help it to function smoothly.
The cell membrane is the cell's customs system. It controls whats going in and out of the cell, just how border police monitors what enters and exits the city. It helps keep everything in place and keeps the perfect temperature to help everything function correctly. The membrane holds the animal cell in particular together by enclosing the cytoplasm and organelles within it and this is how the cell maintains its physical integrity. The cell membrane is also known as the, "plasma membranes" and they have proteins stored in them called surface protein markers which enable other cells close by to communicate with each other.
How is a Plant Cell like a City?
Cell Membrane
The nucleus is like the mayor of the cell. It commands other parts of the cell to fulfill certain tasks to keep balance and have everything working smoothly and in harmony, just like how a mayor keeps order and peace in a city. The word nucleus actually refers to the words center and middle. Although the nucleus is not always going to locate in the middle of the cell all the time, it will be the darkened circular figure in the center of the cytoplasm. The nucleus regulates all cell activity such as eating, movement, and reproduction . It processes energy and nutrient metabolism in all eukaryotic cells due to the fact that prokaryotic cells are organisms without nucleus.
The ER is like a city's post office. It ships proteins to its needed area in the cell. It is a network of membranes spread throughout the cell, connected to the nucleus. The ER is similar to a city's post office because the ship out letters, bills, and packages to specific locations. The ER's primary function is to package off proteins with the help of the golgi apparatus and the ribosomes. The ER is a network of membranes found throughout the whole body of the cell which is connected to the nucleus. There are two basic types of the ER; smooth and rough. They both are basically the same with the exception of some minor things. For example, the shape. The smooth ER is resembles tubes while the rough ER looks like disks of lumpy membranes due to the fact it has ribosomes attached to its surface.
Endoplasmic Reticulum
The cytoplasm provides air and life support for the cell. This is similar to how power gives us the energy we need to work the things we need to survive. Even though the cytoplasm main function is to act as a shelter for the cell's organelles, it does other important things as well, for example, it works with proteins. The cytoplasm and proteins prevent the organelles from migrating to the the bottom of the cell in grouped forms due to the gravitational pull. That being said, the cytoplasm isn't just a blank piece of space you see on your diagram in your science textbook. In fact, it has three major parts: the cytosol, the organelles, and the cytoplasmic inclusions.
The nucleolus is like the reporters of the cell. This is the part of the cell where ribosomes are formed and are being prepared to be shipped out. They are similar to reporters because they get down what the mayor says and put it in articles for the public to read. The nucleolus has many functions other than forming ribosomes. That being said, they do things like disassemble at the first stage of mitosis and reassemble in telophase. They also do three major things needed for the cell to work properly which are: modify transfers of RNA's, sense cellular stress, and signal recognition particles.
Just like newspapers,
ribosomes relay information to the rest of the cell, like how newspapers inform people on whats going on. Ribosomes also aid the production of the various proteins needed for the cell. For a tiny organism located in the cytoplasm, ribosomes do very big tasks. They have to connect amino acids to amino acids, one by one concluding to a long, big chain. You mainly find the ribosomes that are floating in the cytoplasm which are the ribosomes that make the proteins that will be sued on the inside of the cell. Other ribosomes are found in the rough ER. These types of ribosomes are created to make proteins that are both going to be used inside the cell and for the export of the cell.
Golgi Apparatus
The golgi apparatus is the cell's mailman. It's main function is to ship specific particles out of the cell. This acts like a mailman because both send things out to certain areas so that people, or in this case the cell itself, can be satisfied. The golgi apparatus has about 3 to 7 sacs (folds) in them called cisternae which help protiens move through the golgi apparatus. The golgi apparatus associates itself with proteins in three ways; they modify, sort, and package the protiens for secretion.
Since the cell is like a city, the lysosomes would be it's garbage disposal. Lysosomes are created to break down organelles and get rid of unwanted material in the cell, which is why it is being compared to a garbage truck; both of their functions are cutting down and breaking off wastes. Lysosomes are cellular organelles that contain an enzyme, called hydrolase, that helps break down waste and cellular debris. This organelle is a specialized vesicle that holds a whole bunch of enzyme proteins that were created in the rough ER. Lysosomes have three things that they are mainly used for in the processes of digestion: food, organelles, and cells. Lysosomes only work after the cell eats or absorbs food.
Vacuoles are like a city's warehouse. Their main function in the cell is to store needed material, such as water, for the cell to function properly. This relates to a warehouses function due to the fact that it stores junk and waste just like how the vacuoles store the water. Even though vacuoles are found in both the animal and plant cells, they are much bigger in plants. The reason behind this is because the vacuoles continue to grow even when the plant has stopped growing to help store large amounts of water and food; it sometimes takes up more than half a plants volume. Vacuoles can store the good elements such as food and nutrients, however, they can also store the bad products, such as waste so protect the other organelles from contamination.
The mitochondria is used to power the cell by breaking down food to produce cellular energy. In a city, this would be the power plant since they both act alike in terms of powering the main object, the city (but for mitochondria it would be the cell). The mitochondria acts as a digestive system in some ways because it takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates new energy for the cell. There are some cells that have thousands of mitochondria since they are very small organelles. The difference between the mitochondria and other organelles is that the mitochondria has two membranes; the outer membrane that covers and contains the organelle and the inner membrane called the cristae that folds over many times to increase the surface area of the organelle.
Cell Wall
If the cell were a city, the cell wall would be a highway. The wall gives the cell its shape due to the fact that it is on the outer layer of the cell and this is why it acts like a highway. The highway surrounds the outside line and is the border of the city, just like how the cell wall is the outermost surface of the cell. Cell walls are very interesting; they are only found in plant cells and are made out of cellulose. Cellulose are a type of sugar that provides the cell a sturdy, protected framework so the plant can survive. That sugar is what allows the cell wall to create how the shape of the plant is going to turn out like. The cell wall also has holes in them called plasmodesmata that let nutrients, waste, and ions pass through.
Last but definitely not least, the chloroplast. Its major function is to harness the sun's energy to create food for the plant. In a city, this would be the solar panels because both of these objects rely on the sun to create energy which gave them the name of being the "food producers" of their environment. Chloroplast have a specific area in which reactions occur and sugars are produced called the stroma. They also have chlorophyll, which is the main part of the chloroplast that uses sunlight's energy to create sugar. Although animals do not have chloroplasts due to the fact that the get their energy indirectly from the sun, plants are not the only cell that can obtain them; some protists can also have this organelle .
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