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The impact of different types of physical activity on the skeletal and muscular systems

OCR Physical Education A Level
by

Harriet Dawson

on 11 November 2012

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Transcript of The impact of different types of physical activity on the skeletal and muscular systems

Impact of different types of physical activity on the skeletal and muscular systems Bone disorders or weakening can occur through inactive lifestyle, general wear and tear, natural ageing process and injury. BONE HEALTH
AND
BONE DISORDERS GROWTH PLATE OSTEOPOROSIS Common bone disorder
Caused by low bone density and deterioration of bone tissue
Osteoporosis severely weakens the bone, making it prone to fractures
Most commonly affected bones are hip, spine and wrist joints
Women are at more risk of osteoporosis than men
Any sudden bump or fall that might be experienced in contact or impact sports would cause a fracture to someone with osteoporosis.
Risk factors of Osteoporosis include inactivity in childhood, adolescence or adulthood and having an injury that leads to sedentary lifestyle or immobility. A growth plate is the delicate area found between the shaft and either end of a long bone in children and adolescents.
When the growth plate is complete it closes and is replaced by solid bone (usually towards late adolescence) OSTEOPOROSIS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY The best defence against osteoporosis is to build strong and healthy bones during childhood and adolescence.
In early adulthood, bone growth is mostly complete and this represents a time when the bone is at its strongest or has PEAK BONE DENSITY.
A high peak bone density helps to minimise the risk of osteoporosis
High impact activity is thought to be more effective at achieving peak bone density.
NICE suggests resistance/strength training, weight-bearing activity and high impact activities has a positive effect on bone health. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND GROWTH PLATES Injuries to the growth plate in young people are common because it's the weakest area of the growing skeleton.
An impact injury that would cause a sprain in an adult can be associated with a growth plate injury in a child.
Growth plate injuries are caused by a sudden force travelling through a bone (in competitive, contact and impact activities)
Injuries in young performers can also result from overuse caused by repetitive practice. JOINT HEALTH
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JOINT DISORDERS MUSCLE HEALTH Most joint disorders result from impact injuries, such as sprains and dislocations but joint pain can also be due to inflammatory or degenerative conditions. OSTEOARTHRITIS A degenerative joint disease caused by a loss of articular cartilage at the ends of long bones in a joint.
Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones to absorb shock, release synovial fluid and prevent friction between bones when moving.
Osteoarthritis causes pain, swelling and reduced motion in your joints.
This disease commonly affect large weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees.
Articular cartilage begins to deteriorate and there is a loss of cartilaginous cushion. This causes friction between the bones and can lead to new bone spurs being formed around the joint. OSTEOARTHRITIS AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Risk factors include a major injury to a joint or being overweight, both of which cause excessive mechanical strain on a joint and will contribute to wear and tear of the articular cartilage.
There is some evidence that suggest injuries sustained when you are younger can lead to osteoarthritis in later life.
Risk factors of osteoarthritis are closely linked to activities including large and abrupt force on joints.
The onset of osteoarthritis depends very much on frequency, intensity and duration of physical activity.
If physical activity is carefully managed, it can have a positive effect on osteoarthritis (weight loss is less strain on joints). JOINT STABILITY JOINT STABILITY AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY BONE SPURS Bone spurs are small projections of bone that form around joints due to damage to the joint's surface, most commonly caused from the onset of osteoarthritis. They limit movement and cause pain in the joint. Joint stability refers to the resistance offered by various musculo-skeletal tissues that surround a joint.
A stable joint is able to be constantly compressed and stretch without injury.
Deeper joints that have a large surface area of connecting bone are the most stable types of joint (ball and socket joint of the hip for example)
The more ligaments a joint has, the greater its stability.
Although the strength of ligaments is an advantage in increasing joint stability, it is a disadvantage in the fact that they are not very elastic, making them prone to stretching and even snapping.
The location and tone of the surrounding muscles also influences joint stability. Muscle tone helps to keep the tendons around the joint tight. MUSCLE TONE The continual state of partial contraction of a muscle that helps to maintain posture. Exercise strengthens cartilage, ligaments and surrounding muscles which will lead to an increase in the stability of a joint.
Without regular exercise, ligaments will shorten and become less elastic causing muscle tone to be lost. Muscles will also lose flexibility and increase chance of injury.
Contact sports can lead to ligament damage and dislocation of less stable joints. POSTURE AND ALIGNMENT To be able to stand up straight you use your skeletal muscles as stabilisers to maintain good posture.
Posture involves carrying out physical activity with maximum efficiency and minimum risk of injury.
The skeletal muscles responsible for posture tend to be centered around the trunk area (multifidus and transverse abdominus)
Even during rest, our muscles are in a constant state of partial contraction called muscle tone. The greater the muscle tone, the better your posture and core stability. POSTURE AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY The right type of physical activity will improve your posture.
Aerobic exercise will help to control body weight (less strain is put on muscles and joints making it easier to maintain the correct posture)
Strength training will increase muscle tone in postural muscles of trunk, developing core stability.
Having the correct posture improves alignment of the spine and minimises the risk of lower back pain.
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