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ECOLOGY

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Chris Johnson

on 5 April 2013

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Transcript of ECOLOGY

ECOLOGY Organisms AND Population FOOD CHAINS,FOOD WEBS, and ENERGY PYRAMID THE 5 LEVELS of ENVIRONMENTAL ORGANIZATION ENERGY PYRAMID and BIOMASS Community AND Ecosystem BY: ADAM HALL and CHRIS JOHNSON Population is made of similar organisms LIMITING FACTORS CARRYING CAPACITY LIMITING FACTORS and CARRYING CAPACITY food becomes a limiting factor when a population becomes too large for the amount of food available A resource that is so scarce that it limits the size of a population is called a limiting factor Carrying capacity can cause limiting factor to decrease when populations increase SYMBIOSIS MUTUALISM PARASITISM COMMENSALISM a close, long-term association between two or more species A symbiotic relationship in which both organisms benefit For example bacteria get food from you, and you get vitamins that the bacteria produce A symbiotic relationship in which one organism benefits and the other is unaffected Remoras “hitch a ride” and feed on scraps of food left by sharks. The remoras benefit from this relationship, while sharks are unaffected. A symbiotic association in which one organism benefits while the other is harmed The organism that benefits is called the parasite. The organism that is harmed is called the host Natures Cycles Water Cycle Carbon Cycle Nitrogen Cycle The movement of water between the oceans, atmosphere, land, and living things is known as the water cycle The exchange of carbon between the environment and living things Nitrogen is also important to living things. Organisms need nitrogen to build proteins and DNA for new cells. The movement of nitrogen between the environment and living things Primary Succesion Secondary Succesion PRIMARY SUCCESSION and SECONDARY SUCCESSION organisms are only one living thing When over a very long period of time, a series of organisms live and die on the rock. The rock is slowly transformed into soil. This process is called primary succession. Where if soil is left intact, the original community may regrow through a series of stages called secondary succession. Biome A biome is a large region characterized by a specific type of climate and certain types of plant and animal communities Forests Temperate Deciduous Forests:The word deciduous comes from a Latin word that means “to fall off.” Deciduous trees shed their leaves to save water during the winter or during the dry season. A variety of animals, such as bears, snakes, and woodpeckers, live in temperate deciduous forests.
Coniferous Forests:Most of the trees in a coniferous forest are called conifers. Conifers produce seeds in cones. Conifers also have special leaves that are shaped like needles. The leaves have a thick, waxy coating. This waxy coating has three functions. First, it helps keep conifer leaves from drying out. Second, the waxy coating protects needles from being damaged by cold winter temperatures. Finally, the waxy coating allows most conifers to keep many of their leaves year-round.
Tropical Rainforests: Tropical rain forests have more biological diversity than other places on Earth have.Tropical Rain forests have more kinds of plants and animals than any other land biome. For example, more than 100 different kinds of trees may grow in an area about one-fourth the size of a football field. Many animals live on the ground. But most animals live in the canopy, or the treetops. Grasslands Temperate Grasslands plants include grasses and other flowering plants. Temperate grasslands have few trees. Fires, drought, and grazing prevent the growth of trees and shrubs. Temperate grasslands support small seed-eating animals, such as prairie dogs and mice. Large grass eaters, such as the North American bison.
A savanna is a grassland that has scattered clumps of trees and seasonal rains. Savannas are found in parts of Africa, India, and South America. During the dry season, savanna grasses dry out and turn yellow. But the grasses’ deep roots survive for many months without water. The African savanna is home to many large herbivores, such as elephants, giraffes, zebras, and wildebeests. Food Chain In Polar Seas. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 1 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/118_820499 A desert is a region that has little or no vegetation, long periods without rain, and extreme temperatures. Deserts are usually found in hot climates. Animals, such as lizards and snakes, and plants, like cacti and succulents, are adapted to conserve water in the desert. Aquatic Food Web. Illustration. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/309_365729 Lemon Shark, Negaprion Brevirostris, And RemorasBahamas. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/106_930064 Acacia And Ant Symbiosis. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/139_1964253 Guinea Worm. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/139_1999524 Cross Section Illustration Of Water Cycle Showing Continuous Movement Beginning With Storm Cloud Above. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/118_836854 Carbon Cycle. Illustration. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/309_366703 Nitrogen Cycle. Illustration. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 3 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/309_366210 Community are made of different populations Ecosytems are made of a community and its abiotic environment BIOSPHERE Biosphere contains all ecosystems FOOD CHAIN a diagram that shows how energy in food flows from one organism to another. FOOD WEB a diagram that shows the feeding relationships between organisms in an ecosystem. Energy pyramids show a diagram that shows an ecosystem’s loss of energy. Boutin, Stan. "Biomass." World Book Student. World Book, 2013. Web. 3 Apr. 2013. CITATIONS Biomass describes the amount of organic material in a given area. Deserts Desert. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 5 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/149_2030023

Grassland. Photograph. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 5 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/139_1894930

Crowds Of People, Tv Screen, Shibuya, Tokyo, Japan, Asia. Photography. Encyclopædia Britannica Image Quest. Web. 5 Apr 2013. http://quest.eb.com/images/151_2593302

Tundra A biome that has very cold temperatures and little rainfall is called a tundra. Two types of tundra are polar tundra and alpine tundra.

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