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PERIODICITY

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by

brian kon

on 13 May 2013

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Transcript of PERIODICITY

PERIODICITY SS PERIODIC PATTER OF FIRST IONISATION ENERGY Bk Brian Kon 119 THE.8055 2
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1 Jy Juliana Yong 120 280.R1NG 2
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2 Tl Thriya Lekka 121 290.L0L 2
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3 Az Abritho Zaifar 122 300.OMG 2
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The first ionisation energy of an element is the energy needed to remove one electron from each of one mole of gaseous atoms to form one mole of monopositive gaseous cations
X X + (g) (g) e- +
The nuclear charge
The distance of the valence electron from the nucleus
The shielding effect of the inner shell electrons
The electron is in singly occupied or a doubly occupied orbital Parameters that affect the first ionisation energy are : Nuclear charge increases from L.H.S → R.H.S
Shielding effect remains the same (equal number of inner shell electrons from L.H.S → R.H.S )
Distance of valence electron from the nucleus decreases due to decreasing atomic radius from L.H.S → R.H.S
In general it becomes more difficult to remove an electron as we move from L.H.S → R.H.S
Hence, in general the first ionisation energy increases across the period Trend in the first ionisation energy Though there is a general increase in the first I.E
there are two breaks in the general trend at Al and at S
The first I.E of Al is expected to be higher than Mg but actually it is less than Mg
Similarly the I.E of S is less than that of P The valence electron of Al is in 3p orbital
the valence electron of Mg is in 3s orbital
3p orbital is further from the nucleus than 3s
so the electron in 3p orbital also experiences extra shielding from 3s electrons
As a result the net nuclear attraction for the valence electron of Al is less than that of Mg
Therefore the 1st I.E of Al < 1st I.E of Mg Each of the 3p orbitals of P is occupied by a single electron (all 3 orbitals are singly occupied)
In S one of the 3p orbitals is doubly occupied (3pX 2 )
The two electrons in this orbital experience electrostatic force of repulsion from each other
They co-exist in this orbital due to their opposite spins
due to this force of repulsion it is easier to remove one of the paired electrons in S than to remove the electron from a singly occupied orbital in P
Hence the 1st I.E of S is < 1st I.E of P Phosphorus and Sulphur A GROUP PRESENTATION BY: PERIOD 8 ELEMENTS PRESENTS AND CHEMISTRY CAT! NEXT WILL TRY TO MAKE YOU LAUGH (IF HE FAILS, THROW SOMETHING AT HIM) THE MOMENT YOU HAVE BEEN WAITING FOR UP NEXT WILL AMAZE YOU! PLEASE PRETEND TO BE AMAZED FIRST UP The one who took the easy job i wanted and did the introduction WILL TRY NOT TO BE BORING WHEN PRESENTING.... Na O & MgO react with acids to form their corresponding salts and water

Na O(s) + 2HCl(aq) → 2NaCl(aq) + H O(l)

MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) → MgCl (aq) + H O(l)

Al O ( s) being an amphoteric oxide reacts with both acids and alkalis

Al O (s) + 6HCl(aq) → AlCl (aq) + 3H O(l)

Al O (s) + 2NaOH(aq) +3H2O(l) → 2NaAl(OH) (aq)

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 2 4 Base Behaviour Of Oides SiO2 , P4O10 ,SO2 & SO3 are acidic oxides
The later three react readily with alkalis to give their corresponding salts and water
SiO2 reacts with concentrated alkalis forming silicate, SiO32-


Acid Behaviour Of Oxides P4O10 + 12NaOH → 4Na3 PO4 + 6 H2O
SO2 + 2NaOH → Na2 SO3 + H2O
SO3 + 2NaOH → Na2 SO4 + H2O
SiO2 + 2NaOH → Na2 SiO3 + H2O

Hydroxides of Na and Mg are basic in nature just like their corresponding oxides
Hence they react with acids to form their corresponding salts and water
Al(OH)3 is amphoteric ,just like aluminium oxide
Hence it reacts with both acids as well as alkalis

Al(OH)3(s) + 3HCl(aq) AlCl3(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Al(OH)3(s) + 3OH -(aq) [ Al(OH)6 ] 3-(aq) + 3H2O(l)
Hydroxides of Na, Mg & Al FINALLY THE GUY WHO WAS HOPING NOT TO PRESENT BECAUSE HE WORK SO HARD TO PREPARE THIS PRESENTATION...... questions questions questions questionquestion squestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestionsquestions wasn't expecting any.... thank you for listening
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