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The Pacific Ring of Fire
Transcript of The Pacific Ring of Fire
http://www.weatherwizkids.com/weather-volcano.htm The 3 types of Tectonic Plate Boundaries Diverging Converging Transforming Diverging Plates are tectonic plates moving away from each other Converging Boundaries are tectonic plates that are moving towards each other. an exapmle of a converging boundary is at the Andes Mountain Range in South America. Subduction Subduction occurs when two plates move toward each other and the heavier plate (usually an ocean plate) slides under the lighter one(usually a continental plate.) Two converging Tectonic Plates Two Diverging Tectonic Plates Transforming Boundaries are where two tectonic plates slide against each other. Two Transforming Tectonic Plates Mexico United States Canada Russia Japan Philippines Indonesia New Zealand Antartica South America Central America How their lives are affected by the Ring of Fire Their lives are affected by the ring of fire in three different ways:
and Tsunamis Earthquakes Volcanoes Tsunamis What are they? An earthquake is where two tectonic plates rub against each other.
This causes movement on the surface of the earth. A volcanic eruption The damage left from an earthquake A tsunami hitting a village Why do Earthquakes happen? Earthquakes happen when a pirece of rock breaks in the fault line of two tectonic plates. How are Earthquakes measured? Earthquakes are measured on the Richter Scale. The Richter Scale is a numerical value used to measure the power of earthquakes. It is measured by a Seismograph. 2.0 or less: Cannot be felt.
2.1 - 3.9: Most aren't felt, but those at the higher end may be. Very minor damage.
4.0 - 4.9: Can be felt. General shaking, but usually only minor damage.
5.0 - 5.9: Can cause slight to moderate damage to structures.
6.0 - 6.9: Can cause significant damage, especially in populated areas.
7.0 - 7.9: Causes serious, widespread damage.
8.0 - 9.9: Extremely destructive. Can completely destroy entire communities. The effects of an earthquake depending on the magnitude How are peoples lives affected by earthquakes? Earthquakes can kill and destroy buildings and livelihoods in an instant without warning.This means that many people living in the ring of fire can have their lives torn away in a moment. Many countries, such as New Zealand, are forced to build their buildings so that they will not be destroyed by Earthquakes. A few countries have alarms that alert civilians of an incoming earthquake, leaving them with just enough time to reach shelter. Rubble left behind after an earthquake One of the safety measure added in to some buildings, a damper. The damper will sway with the motion of the earth, meaning the building is more likely to stay upright. Tsunamis arelong high seawaves of water caused by earthquakes or any other disturbance in the surface of the earth. What are they? Why do Tsunamis happen? Tsunamis occur when an earthquake or volcanic eruption occurs under water, or near the sea. How are Tsunamis measured? Tsunamis are normally measured by the height of the waves when they hit the shore but they can also be measured by a Tsunameter. What is a Tsunameter? The tsunameter is a pressure gorge moored on to the ocean floor that measures the pressure of the waves above it. It can be used to quickly detect a tsunami, even before it has properly formed. This means that people on the coast can have the opportunity to reach higher ground before the tsunami hits. How are peoples lives affected by Tsunamis? Many people lose their lives during tsunamis, but as well as that tsunamis often topple buildings, leacing people with no homes. They also damage crops and piliens, leaving the drinking water dirty and full of diseases. What are they? A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Why do Volcanic eruptions happen? Volcanic eruptions happen when the one tectonic plate moves under another, pushing magma toward the surface. The three types of Volcanoes Cinder Cone Volcano Cinder cones are circular or oval cones made up of small fragments of lava from a single vent that have been blown into the air, cooled and fallen around the vent. Composite Volcano Shield Volcano Composite volcanoes are steep-sided volcanoes composed of many layers of volcanic rocks, usually made from high-viscosity lava, ash and rock debris. Mt. Rainier and Mount St. Helens are examples of this type of volcano. Shield volcanoes are volcanoes shaped like a bowl or shield in the middle with long gentle slopes made by basaltic lava flows. Basalt lava flows from these volcanoes are called flood basalts. How are peoples lives affected by Volcanoes? Volcanic eruptions often cause widespread damage to areas through molten lava and fallen rocks. If people do nt evacuate in time many lives can be lost. However, when there is lots of Volcanic activity in one area it leads to very fertile soil.