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Anth101 GENDER Spring 16
Transcript of Anth101 GENDER Spring 16
Universal way of organizing social roles
but matters in different ways and to different degrees between cultures
Why Study Gender?
Anthropology (and other disciplines) had been androcentric historically
What is the difference between sex & gender?
Sex- biological differences
(X/Y chromosomes, hormones, secondary sexual characteristics)
Gender- culturally & historically constructed norms, values, & behaviors considered appropriate for each sex.
Hegemonic understanding of a two sex/two gender model
---idea took root during Renaissance
We talk about sex and gender as if they are the same and gender is determined by biology
"naturally" feminine, "naturally" masculine
Hua of Papua New Guinea
Gender classified on physical characteristics and amount of “nu”
Women in child bearing years- large amount of nu
Men- low amount of nu
Women post-menopausal- low amount of nu “like men”
Elderly men- high amount of nu “like women”
Multiple Gender Categories
"Third Gender" +
-gender identity that incorporates both masculine & feminine.
-performs multiple gendered tasks-- domestic, hunting, warfare
-Have marriage relationships with gendered person that are not Berdache
-culturally & historically constructed-
-different ideas, beliefs, meanings, symbols and roles
-attributes that we associate with different genders
-how we ought to behave, what we ought to wear, what we should like
-contribute to how we define masculinity & femininity
-part of our cultural knowledge
What kinds of ideas, symbols, etc about masculinity & the 'appropriate behavior of men' is transmitted in this commercial?
-- 1/100 differ from standard male/female
--2/1000 receive surgery to "normalize" genital appearance
Hegemonic idealised gender vs multiple ways of being a gendered person
Sambia of PNG
masculinity= substance Jerungdu
understood to be 'strength'
biologically male children do not have...acquire through initiations
men contribute 'semen' to reproduction/ women contribute blood: "Semen makes all the infant: bone, skin, brain. One thing only, blood, your mom gives to you"
-- but blood is understood as overwhelming
--boys physical characteristics do not produce Jerungda..only can be acquired and stored.
Through acquisition of Jerungdu-- become both physical and gendered men-- source of idealized masculinity-strength, aggression, aloofness, arrogance
How do they learn these ideals?
The Hijras in India
-gender role is neither male nor female
not necessarily biologically DETERMINED. RELATED, but NOT DETERMINED.
--“raw material” that we build different ideas, beliefs, meanings, and roles around
--Construction of Reality
How is masculinity and femininity produced, managed, and transmitted within the US context?
But...is 'sex' actually as apparent as we think it is?
How did the Kabre connect constructions of gender to understandings of biological processes?
"I am man, hear me roar"
"Have you seen his hands? And you know what they say about men with small hands?”
"Grow a pair (of balls)"
"Crying is for girls"
Who controls the representation femininity?
How are these stereotypes reproduced within understandings of the sperm & the egg?
"Gender reality is performative which means, quite simply, that it is real only the extent that it is performed"
Judith Butler (Performative, 278)
What assumptions does the term "gender crossing" imply?
Gender Roles & Sexual Division of Labor
Jobs or tasks associated with different genders (even if only symbolically)
“Patterned ways of allocating productive and other economic tasks to" gendered persons
"Man the Hunter, Woman the Gatherer"
Is this historically true?
Is this true cross-culturally?
attempts to explain in terms of:
-masculinity: active, violent dominant
-dominating of women as well as other men, socially & sexually
What is the Kabre division of labor?
Is the relationship between men & women equal?