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The Periodic Table

Hinsdale South HS Chemistry Unit Text - A Natural Approach to Chemistry
by

Mark Pennington

on 17 January 2012

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Transcript of The Periodic Table

When arranged according to atomic number, elements show repeating, or periodic trends in their chemical and physical properties. Periodic Law Periodic Table A table of the chemical elements arranged according to their atomic numbers
Density vs. Atomic Mass Atomic Radii Ionization Energy Electronegativity Orbitals
&
Atomic Radius Alkaline Earth Metals (II) Transition Metals Carbon, Oxygen, & Nitrogen Halogens
&
Nobel Gasses Compounds Periodic Trends Valence Electrons Main Group of Elements Alkali Metals (I) Periodic Properties of
Groups of Elements Lewis Dot Diagrams Bonding History Dmitri Mendeleev Metals Non-metals Metalloids shiny
malleable
conduct electricty
solids at room temp do not conduct electricty
many are gasses & liquids at room temp properties similar to metals and non-metals http://www.coolquiz.com/trivia/explain/docs/worth.asp Henry Mosley Periodic Table Essential Elements Covalent Compounds:
2 or more atoms that share electrons to gain stability Ionic Compounds:
2 or more atoms that gain stability due to their attraction to each
other as a result of having opposite charges due to electron transfer Dobereiner Grouped elements into 3's exhibiting similair properties. Examples:
Li, Na, K
Ca, Ba, Sr
Cl, Br, I 1829 John Dalton http://www.corrosion-doctors.org/Periodic/Periodic-Dobereiner.htm He thought elements consist of one type of atom and gave them symbols He played a card game and set elements in order of atomic mass beneath elements with similar properties Mendeleev left gaps in his table ... believed there were undiscovered elements that would fill the voids as a result ... predicted the properties of elements that had not been discovered yet ... further supporting the "periodic nature" of the elements. he was prpeared to change the arrangments when atomic mass did not fit the property... Look at Iodine in Group 7 and Tellurium in Group 6 1914 Placed elements in order of atomic number The Tellurium/Iodine and the Argon/Potassium problem dissappeared.... it made sense! Triads German English 1869 English http://chem-faculty.lsu.edu/hogan/matter/chap26/animate2/an26_017.mov http://chem-faculty.lsu.edu/hogan/matter/chap26/animate2/an26_021.mov http://chem-faculty.lsu.edu/hogan/matter/chap26/animate2/an26_023.mov http://chem-faculty.lsu.edu/hogan/matter/chap26/animate2/an26_018.mov http://www.chemistry.co.nz/mendeleev.htm http://www.chemistry.co.nz/henry_moseley.htm http://www.sprocketworks.com/shockwave/load.asp?SprMovie=periodictableweb http://www.sprocketworks.com/shockwave/load.asp?SprMovie=chemshellsweb Ionization energy of an atom or molecule ='s the energy
needed to remove electrons from an atom The tendency to attract electrons: a measure of the tendency of an atom in a molecule to attract the electrons in a chemical bond Element necessary to the body: a chemical element that is necessary to the healthy growth of an organism How Much is My Body Worth? http://www.rsc.org/chemsoc/visualelements/pages/pertable_fla.htm What phenomenon occurs only in families and accounts for differences in atomic size and ionization energy Shielding What is shielding? Electrons are added to higher energy levels. Valence electrons are blocked from the nuclear pull by electrons in lower energy levels. Why doesn’t shielding occur in periods? Electrons are added to the same energy level, so outer electrons aren’t blocked
Cations (when metals lose electrons)
Anions (when nonmetals gain electrons)
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