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Understanding Social Marketing
Transcript of Understanding Social Marketing
Social Marketing Definition
1971 Social marketing is not a theory in itself. Rather, it is a framework or structure that draws from many other bodies of knowledge such as psychology, sociology, anthropology and communications theory to understand how to influence people’s behaviour. Kotler and Zaltman (1971)
1973 Social marketing is the application of marketing knowledge, techniques and theories to enhance social goals as well as economic ends. It is also focuses on the social consequence of marketing policies, decisions and activities. Lazer and Kelley 1973
1975 Social marketing asks why and how exchanges are created and resolved in social relationships. Bagozzi 1975
1976 Social marketing uses marketing principles to promoting and facilitating the exchange of values, non-economic, and nonprofit social organizations. Bartels 1976
1984 Social marketing uses marketing principles to promote socially benefical goods. They may be ideas, causes, behaviors, or perhaps specific services. This is facilitated by the provision of knowledge and product availability. Wallack (1984)
1994 Social marketing adapts commercial marketing techniques to influence the voluntary behaviour of a targeted audience. It improves their personal welfare and society as a whole. Andreasen 1994
2002 Social marketing is designed to improve the welfare of individuals and society. It should not benefit the organization doing the social marketing. MacFadyen, Stead , Hastings 2002
2002 Social Marketing uses marketing principles and concepts to influence individuals to voluntarily adapt their behaviour (accepting, rejecting, modifying or abandoning) for their benefit or society as a whole. Kotler, Roberto and Lee 2002
2003 Social Marketing uses commercial marketing technologies to support the analysis, planning, execution, and evaluation of processes that will influence voluntary or involuntary behaviour of its targeted audience so that it can improve the welfare of individuals and society. Donavan and Henley 2003
2007 Social Marketing is the systematic application of marketing techniques alongside other concepts and theories with the goal of achieving specific behavioural goals for a social good. NSMC 2007
2007 Social marketing uses techniques from the commercial sector to instill a framework for behaviour change to the resolution of health and social problems. McDermott et al 207
"Social marketing is the adaption of commercial marketing technologies to programmes designed to influence the behaviour of target audiences to improve their personal welfare and that of society of which they are a part."
Social Marketing Definition:
Which of these are social marketing campaigns?
1. Weightwatchers charging individuals for support in reducing weight.
2. The NHS commissioning Weightwatchers for support in reducing weight for a range of patients (free for the patients).
3. Tesco sponsoring Cancer Research UK's Race for Life 2013.
4. The introduction of the new UK pension scheme to help individuals save for their retirement.
Wiebe (1951-1952) asked “why can’t you sell brotherhood and rational thinking like you sell soap?”
Kotler & Levy (1969) and Kotler & Zaltman (1971) have expanded his thoughts from being just a promotional process to a more structured and strategic social marketing framework.
Categories of Social Marketing
Types of Social Marketing.
Micro: focusing on the individual.
Macro: developed up stream (government).
Critical: review of commercial marketing on social issues.
The Benchmark Criteria.
The benchmark criteria are eight key elements that are included in successful social marketing interventions.
Aims to change people’s actual behaviour:
The intervention is focused on influencing specific behaviours, not just knowledge, attitudes and beliefs.
Clear, specific, measurable and time-bound behavioural goals have been set, with baselines and key indicators established.
Customer orientation & Insight :
Focuses on the audience. Fully understands their lives, behaviour and the issue using a mix of data sources and research methods.
Customer research identifies ‘actionable insights’ – pieces of understanding that will lead intervention development.
Goes beyond interviews and focus groups to use ethnographic techniques as well.
Uses a range of research analyses and combines data from different sources (qualitative and quantitative).
Gains key stakeholder understanding and feeds it into methods mix development.
Avoids a ‘one size fits all’ approach: identifies audience ‘segments’, which have common characteristics, then tailors interventions appropriately:
Segments are prioritised and selected based on clear criteria, such as size and readiness to change.
Interventions in the methods mix are directly tailored to specific audience segments.
Considers benefits and costs of adopting and maintaining a new behaviour; maximises the benefits and minimises the costs to create an attractive offer:
Clear and comprehensive analyses of the perceived/actual costs versus perceived/actual benefits.
Considers what the target audience values: offers incentives and rewards, based on customer orientation and insight findings.
Replaces benefits the audience derives from the problem behaviour and competition.
Seeks to understand what competes for the audience’s time, attention, and inclination to behave in a particular way.
Addresses direct and external factors that compete for the audience’s time and attention.
Develops strategies to minimise the impact of competition, clearly linked to the exchange offered.
Uses behavioural theories to understand behaviour and inform the intervention .
The theory, or theories used, are identified after conducting the customer orientation research.
Appropriate behavioural theory is clearly used to inform and guide the methods mix.
Theoretical assumptions are tested as part of the intervention pre-testing.
Uses a mix of methods (marketing mix) to bring about behaviour change. Does not rely solely on raising awareness .
Uses elements of the "extended" marketing mix.
Promotion is used to ‘sell’ the product, price, place and benefits to the target audience, not just to communicate a message.
Creates a new brand, or leverages existing brands appropriate to the target audience.
The objective of this lecture is to provide you with the background and tools needed to complete the project and seminar work in the coming weeks.
Categories & Types.
Which of these require behaviour changes?
1. Using a seat belt whilst driving.
2. Coca cola asking for Likes on their Facebook page.
3. Eating five portions of fruit per day.
4. Turning off the lights when leaving an empty room.
Which of these would be valid Market Segments for a campaign running in the UK?
1. Every individual living in the UK.
2. Males between the ages of 18 to 30.
3. People who don't like cheese.
4. Housewives living in the Sheffield Area.
The Extended Marketing Mix
The list can grow.