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Japan

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grace o'malley

on 5 February 2013

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Transcript of Japan

Japan Early History Early periods The Classical Age of Japan Japanese Classical Music Kimigayo (The Reign of Our Emperor But Only as Symbol of the People): Japan's national anthem Other popular Japanese Music Jomon Period (8000-300 B.C.): The people were hunters and gatherers. They also made a lot of pottery. Nara period (710 A.D. -794 A.D.): Nara was Japan's first permanent capital. It was built in northern japan in 710 A.D. During the Nara period, Chinese customs were very popular in Japan as was Buddhism. Japan's national anthem is one of the shorest in the world. It is only five verses long. The lyrics came from a poem written in the Heian period. The poem is about the everlasting reign of the emporer and of japan. Kamakura Period (1185 A.D -1333 A.D.):
During this period, military-run government was established in japan. The role of the emperor was only ceremonial. A general named Yoritomo Minamoto gained control over some of Japan and he established a military government. Eventually his government had control of all of Japan. This government was called "bakufu." The Influence of Western Music There is a lot of controversy over when Japan was founded as a country. Many believe that is was around 660 B.C. Before Japan was founded, its inhabitants came from Siberia, the Korean Peninsula, China, and some surrounding islands.
There are 11 periods of history in Japan: The Jomon, Yaoyoi Period, Tomb Period, Age of Reform, Nara Period, Heian Period, Kamakura Period, Kemmu Restoration, Ashikaga Period, Tokugawa (Edo) Period, Meiji Period. Yaoyoi Period (300 B.C.-300 A.D.): This was when Japan first appeared on China's records. Japan's inhabitants were known as the "Wa." New technological advances such as wet-rice agriculture, the use of bronze and iron, new styles of pottery, etc. Also, cultural advancements were brought most likely from immigrants. Tomb Period (300 A.D -552 A.D.): The beginning of city culture started. "Uji" clans had control over the island, and one the Uji families (Yamato) constantly fought with other tibes over control. The Age of Reform (552 A.D. -710 A.D.): Japan established a system of royal leaders (kings, queens, etc). In 607 A.D Prince Shotoku sent a mission of monks, government representatives, and students to China to learn China's customs and to bring back valuable information. They learned about Chinese literacy, Buddhism, Chinese art, and how China is ruled. These missions were continued. Japan's first Constitution was written by Prince Shotoku, and a government was established based on that of China's. Heian Period (794 A.D. -1185 A.D): In 794 A.D a new capital was established: Kyoto. During the Heian Period Chinese traditions were changed with Japanese characteristics. Also, the development of shomyo (an important sacred form of music similar to chanting), the form of musical notation, and the collections of the musical scores were established and the methods for teaching them were practiced. Kemmu restoration (1333 A.D. -1336 A.D): During this period, emporer Go- Daigo attempted to return all power to the emporer by attacking the bakufu government with his troops. Go-Daigo lost and was exiled. Ashikaga Period (1336-1573): During this period there was much war and turmoil in the country. There was battle against the Mongols and also civil wars. Tokugawa (Edo) Period (1600-1867):
Tokugawa leyasu became emporer after many wars in Japan. He established peace for a long time, and he also expanded the power of the government. Because of all of the wars with other countries, citizens werent allowed to leave Japan for a long time. Imports and exports to and from Japan were scarce. Since there were no more battles to fight, martial arts (karate) became very popular. Meiji Period (1868-1912) and Modern Japan:
In the mid 1800s, America sent a fleet of warships demanding that Japan open their ports to trade. They agreed to. After this, Japan fought in many wars with China and Korea. They took control over Korea. Not long after this, Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, causing the United States to join WWII. The war finally ended in August, 1945 when the U.S dropped the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, and then three days later on Nagasaki. For seven years after the end of the war, Japan was occupied by allied forces (including the U.S). During this period, a democratic constitution was established, officially ending the militarized rule in Japan. Japan is currently a Parliamentary Democracy with Constitutional Monarchy. Their emperor is Akihito and their prime minister is Shinzō Abe. Japanese Classical Music: There are two types of classical music in Japan: Shomyo (Buddhist chanting) and gagaku (orchestral court music)
There are three types of Gagaku: native music and folk songs (saibara), Korean influenced music (komagaku), and Chinese influenced music (togaku). The shakuhachi (an end-blown flute), the koto, and the biwa (a short-necked lute) were the earliest used to play gagaku. Around the Meji Period, taiko (drums), shamisen (a three-stringed lute,) and shinobue (flute) were added.
Komagaku and togaku arrived in Japan during the Nara period (710-794). Gagaku performances were played by musicians who belonged to hereditary guilds. During the Kamakura period (1185-1333), military rule was imposed and gagaku was performed in the homes of the aristocracy, but rarely at court.
Shomyo music originated in India, and eventually made its way to China, Korea, and then Japan. It is Buddhist scriptures put to chants. The root meaning of "shomyo" is "the study of the language." The languages for Shomyo are Sanskrit, Chinese, and Japanese. Religion The most common religions in Japan are Shinto, Buddhism, Christianity, Confucianism, and Islam. Shinto originated in Japan and dates back to the early 8th century and is the worship of ancestors and nature spirits and a belief in sacred power (kami) in both living and nonliving things. It was the state religion of Japan until 1945 The goal of Japanese music is to produce a big effect with little material. Even in an orchestra, the timbre of each instrument can be heard. This differs from Western orchestras because the goal of Western music is pretty much to merge all of the sounds. This feature of Japanese music is prominent in gagaku. Japanese pieces are normally divided into a three-part melody: the introduction, the varying middle part, and the rushed endings. This type of musical form is called tripartite form (jo-ha-kyū)
This type of form in western music is like sonata allegro form: exposition, development, recapitulation. The Meiji Restoration introduced Western music. Western music, especially military marches, became popular in Japan. Shoka (music written for the sake of bringing western music into schools) and gunka (which are military marches with some Japanese elements) developed from the introduction of western music.
Westernized pop music is called kayokyoku in Japan.
The tango, Latin music, Cuban music became very popular in Japan. A Japanese form of tango called dodompa developed.
Japanese bands were heavily influenced/inspired by The Beatles, Bob Dylan and the Rolling Stones, Appalachian folk music, psychedelic rock, etc.
Western classical music has become popular in Japan. Japanese Rock: Developed by the late 1960s. Happy End, Okinawan Champluse, Carol, RC Succession and Harada Shinji were very famous and practically defined the genre. In the 1980s, the Southern All Stars became the most popular band in Japanese rock's history, and helped inspire alternative rock bands like Shonen Knife & the Boredoms and Tama & Little Creatures. In the 1980s, Hosono Haruomi developed electronica. Sources: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kimigayo
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0107666.html
http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02japanese.html
http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?itemid=1782&catid=22&subcatid=146
http://www.scaruffi.com/politics/japanese.html
http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2131.html
http://people.cohums.ohio-state.edu/bender4/eall131/EAHReadings/module02/m02japanese.html
http://www.japan-101.com/art/music_of_japan.htm
http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2056.html
http://jtrad.columbia.jp/eng/history.html
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