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barriers to learning...

a sociological explanation

Stuart Mitchell

on 1 March 2018

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Transcript of barriers to learning...

the formal curriculum
hidden curriculum
Non-financial social assets that may be educational or intellectual, which might promote social mobility beyond economic means.
Bourdieu – Cultural Capital (1973)
The ‘Working Class’ may not wish to achieve ‘Middle Class’ status and may suffer from having lack of ambition and social isolation.
Boudon - Positional Theory (1974)
An experiment in which 7000 black families on welfare were given the chance to move to either suburban or urban locations.
Rosenbaum - The Gautreaux Project (1976)
Parents provide their children with cultural capital by transmitting the attitudes and knowledge needed to succeed in the current educational system.
The forms of knowledge, skills, education, and advantages that a person has, dependent on a range of factors, gives them a higher status in society.
The ‘Middle Class’ are encouraged to work hard to remain the same as their peer group, and parental attitudes reinforce this as they pressure them to maintain their social status; whereas ‘Working Class’ parents accept their children's will to take on ‘Working Class’ jobs.
Rosenbaum - The Gautreaux Project (1976)
After several years, the suburban and urban participants had very different outcomes:
The urban participants' children were likely to drop out of high school, but their suburban counterparts are likely to graduate from high school and even college.
The urban participants were likely to remain on the welfare rolls, but their suburban counterparts were very likely to find employment and leave welfare.
Adults who moved to suburban communities experienced notable improvements in employment experience, and the prospects for children who moved improved dramatically.
The suburban and urban participants started out identical: all were selected from the same pool of callers, and were randomly placed into private apartments in either suburban or urban locations.
The program was intentionally low-profile: only a few participants were moved into each area in order to prevent 'white flight', and because the residents moved into private units, they had no external markers of being on welfare.
Douglas – Cultural Deprivation (1967)
Working class parents offer less encouragement and support towards their children's education.
Hargreaves, Hester & Mellor -
Deviance in Classrooms (1975)
At first, teachers have limited knowledge about their new pupils as individuals.
Stage One - Speculation
1. Appearance
2. How far they conform to discipline
3. Ability and enthusiasm for work
4. How likeable they are
5. Relationships with other children
6. Personality
7. Whether they were deviant
Stage Two - Elaboration
Stage Three - Stabilization
The effect of studies like this was to 'blame the victim', with working class culture being seen as problematic.
The apparent lack of interest of working class parents may mask their lack of confidence or knowledge in dealing with schools.
teaching and learning
course structure
the hidden curriculum
secondary socialisation
transmission of values
reproduction of
cultural hegemony
The diagram above was created from chapter 18 on ‘Class ‘ in Curzon, L.B (2003) Teaching in Further Education, Cornwall, Continuum
Lack of confidence in the teacher
Lack of tolerance of authority
Resentment of the teacher acts as a catalyst
Distracting personal problems
College seen as a symbol of failure
College seen as an extension of employment
Breakdown of communication
Immaturity and hostility
Compulsory attendance
classroom management - trigger factors
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