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Temperate Forests

alfred is owsom

Jay Mangat

on 9 January 2014

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Transcript of Temperate Forests

Temperate Deciduous Forest
Features & Distribution
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Found in Northern Hemisphere such as: Eastern United States and Canada, Central and Western Europe, Southwest Russia, Eastern China, Japan, but also parts of Australia
The forest has already begun shifting such as areas in Europe due to Atlantic Conveyor which takes the warmer water from the Equator and Caribbean areas and sends it North along the Atlantic ocean to the colder Northern Atlantic waters of Europe
Temperate Rainforest
Majority of Temperate Rainforests found in Northwest North America from Southern Alaska to Northern California, as well as small areas in other countries such as Southern Chile, Argentina, New Zealand, Australia, Spain, and Portugal
Found near cool coastal areas both North and South of the Equator in Oceanic-Moist Climates all over the globe
An example of a commensalism relationship in the temperate rainforest is
An example of a commensalism relationship in the temperate rainforest is
Temperate Rainforest Food Web
Spotted Owl
Flying Squirrel
Pileated Woodpecker
Red Tree Vole
Douglas Fir Tree Needle
Carpenter Ant
Ecological Hierarchy
Temperate Deciduous Forest
An organism would be a beaver that has a habitat within the Temperate Deciduous Forest and lives along the waterways in the forest
Population of beavers work and live together to build dams in the waterways for homes
Community of certain section of forest such as aquatic community would be beavers, frogs, mallard ducks, muskrats, and newts
Ecosystem of Temperate Deciduous Forest is comprised of different communities such as aquatic and terrestrial communities interacting with the abiotc and biotic factors
Temperate Rainforest
Organism would be an elk which helps in landscaping the forest and keeps it from thickening by eating some of the vegetation
Population would involve elk and mule deer, both herbivores that work together to eat and protect one another from predators
Community would be all terrestrial herbivores that are vulnerable to carnivore and omnivore consumers
Ecosystem would be all different variations of populations such as those that live high in the trees or those that need to survive near the aquatic areas near land
Abiotic and Biotic Factors
Symbiotic Relationships
Where one organism in a relationship benefits while other(s) is/are not affected
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Temperate Rainforests
A relationship which both (or more) organisms in the relationship benefits.
Temperate Rainforests
Temperate Rainforests
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Temperate Deciduous Forests
A relationship where one organism benefits and the other is harmed.
necessary to survive in these biomes
Physiological Adaptations
Behavioural Adaptations
Structural Adaptations
defined as physical or chemical changes that occur within the body of an organism that enables survival. Usually refers to what occurs
the body (cells, tissue, muscles, etc)
characterized by what an organism does to survive in its environment through its behaviour, actions and daily activities. This includes how the organism feeds, mates, cares for its young, migrates, hibernates and even how it escapes.
described as a physical feature (something to do with an organism's structure) that has specific functions that helps an organism survive.
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Rainforest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Rainforest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Temperate Rainforest
A Niche is the special role an organism plays in an ecosystem. This includes the way in which it contributes to and fits into an ecosystem.
-Lichens cling on tree trunks, where they receive more sunlight than on the forest floor, like other plant species. Instead of having to compete with other plant species for sunlight on the forest floor, they have an advantage,by clinging onto trees, they have their own source of sunlight.
-The Long-toed salamander has a long tongue, which allows for it to get insects which live inside tree bark. In return, helps get rid of insects from inside the tree, which over time, would kill the tree.
Temperate Rainforest
Flying Squirrel
Temperate Rainforest Food Chain
Temperate Deciduous Forest
-Squirrels store their food(nuts and seeds) in tree hollows. Unlike some other animals, squirrels do not hibernate, so storing their food now allows them a steady supply of food during the winter.
The abiotic factors of both biomes are sunlight, precipitation, temperature, and the soil.
The biotic factors of both biomes are plants, animals, fungi, and bacteria.
An example of commensalism is the relationship between plants and frogs. Frogs use the plants as shelter without affecting the plants. Plants, such as lily pads, also help by allowing frogs to stay near the water but also get away from predators.

An example of commensalism in the temperate deciduous forest is the relationship between a squirrel and a tree. The tree offers the squirrel protection from predators and shelter. Squirrels do no harm to the tree whatsoever.
Abiotic factors, such as sunlight, can affect ecosystems because it helps in the growth of plants and vegetation. Deciduous forests have 4 to 5 layers of plant growth which reduces the exposure of sunlight to the following layers of plants. This limits their growth. The trees in rainforests grow very tall and this decreases the amount of sunlight reaching the ground drastically. This causes the biome floor to be covered in a 'blanket' of ferns, mosses and fungi.
Another abiotic factor is precipitation. Precipitation plays a big role in rainforest biomes. Because of the high precipitation, trees in the this biome grow very tall and this is the reason why the floor in covered in ferns, mosses and fungi. Precipitation in temperate deciduous forests affect the ecosystem because that biome receives both rain and snow, depending on location (ex. snow if in mountains). The amount and type of precipitation affects the temperature which can then go on to change the plant and animal life in the forest.
An example of mutualism is the relationship between leaf-cutter ants and fungus. The ants cut down and collect leaves to bring to and grow fungus. In return, the fungus gives the ants nutrients and food.
Biotic factors such as plant life also affect biomes in a big way. In both temperate deciduous and rainforests, the areas are filled with vegetation and greenery. These plants and animal species use resources such as the water and sunlight available to grow. They provide energy to predators (animal life) and provide oxygen for the animals that use cellular respiration and help in keeping them alive.
Biotic factors such as animal life affect the environment because they help keep the environment clean and trimmed. For example, slugs in the temperate rainforests aid in breaking down organic matter which may be found around the forest floor and keep recycling nutrients around the biome. Deers in temperate deciduous forests help trim down the plant vegetation in the forests as they are herbivores. This way, the forests don't overgrow.
Temperate Deciduous Food Chain
Food Chains
-Raccoons are omnivores so they fit into the ecosystem practically eating anything below them on the food chain. They are known for being diverse as they are be found near both aquatic and terrestrial land searching for food.
A relationship between a woodpecker and a tree is mutualistic. The woodpecker eats insects, such as termites, for food. This makes the tree healthier and in return, gives the woodpecker food and shelter.
Lice and deers have a parasitic relationship. The lice uses the deer as a host and feeds directly from the deer's body. This weakens and causes the deer to become very sick.
Cicadas (si-kay-duhs) hatch their eggs inside a tree. Once the eggs hatch, the nymphs (similar to larvae) drop to the ground and burrow down to the roots. These nymphs feed off the tree's roots for long amounts of time. The tree is deprived of nutrients and is slowly affected.
The colour of a rabbit's fur can change between seasons. It can change to lighter colours such as white or grey during the winter and darker colours such as brown and black during summer seasons. This helps it camouflage better to hide from its predators.
Gray Wolf
Annual Rainfall is about 75 cm to 180 cm with precipitation equally rationed throughout the year.
Temperature ranges from -30°C in winter to 30°C in summer.
Earthworms burrow into the ground where they are able to hide from predators and feed off the nutrients in the soil. This is how the earthworm behaves to survive day to day.
Frogs have very powerful back legs and webbed feet that allow them to jump great distances (even up to 20x their own length) and swim. They also use it to dig underground so they can hibernate.
Most owls are nocturnal, meaning they only hunt during the night. They take advantage of their really good hearing and amazing sight. Hunting at night allows them to be near the top of the food chain and not worry about the bigger and stronger predators in the day. Also, most of the owl's prey are also nocturnal, making nocturnal hunting a necessity.
Rainfall is generally above 200 cm yearly.
The Temperate Deciduous and Rainforest Biomes
What are the impacts of human activity on the biodiversity of the ecosystem? What are the consequences of human exploitation?
Skunks have scent glands under their tails that produce a very smelly and powerful spray. They emit this strong, foul odor when threatened to deter its predators or any danger. The smell is difficult to get rid of and will warn other animals of the danger. This helps the skunk survive and warn others that it is not an animal to mess with!
Temperatures range from 5°C to 25°C.
A predator is any organism that hunts or seizes food by killing other organisms.
Prey are organisms that are hunted by predators. In predation the prey is the organism being eaten.
A flying squirrel is an example of prey to a cougar, its predator.
A gray wolf is the predator of a raccoon and the raccoon is its prey.
Temperate Rainforest
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Some snakes create venom to help them hunt. It allows the snakes to have an easier time hunting and can take on animals bigger than them.
Birds have hollow bones that reduce their weight thus giving them the ability to fly. They also have special feathers that aid them in flying.

Owls devour their prey whole, allow their body to digest nutrients and afterward regurgitate fur, bones and unnecessary objects.
Temperate deciduous forests are found above 23.5° north latitude and between 23.5° and 38° south latitude. Temperate rainforests are located from 38° to 56° south latitude and from 38° to 61° north latitude. Temperate forests often occur at or close to sea level but are also found in mountains especially temperate deciduous forests. These forests may be found near the coast as well as farther inland.
Habitats of Organisms
Temperate Deciduous Forest:
Birds nest in the trees and fly down south in the winter, some reptiles, for example lizards also inhabit trees. Salamanders can be found in the leaf litter.
Temperate Rainforest:
Red tree voles live in treetops and often spend most of their life in one tree, many generations also will live in different parts of the same tree. Spotted owls nest in tree holes, old nests of larger birds and/or rock crevices.
- By Jay, Sukhman, Geet0000 and Alfred
Predator and Prey
The way we use the Earth's resources is very inefficient and we don't think twice of what we're actually doing to the Earth. Us humans don't understand that, and with the rate we're consuming resources, it can all rapidly disappear. We take down habitats and use it for our own use without giving back enough. What we don't recognize is that most of these things are irreversible, irreplaceable and incredibly hard to get once we are out of it. An example would be fossil fuels. It takes an incredibly long time to accumulate naturally and at the rate we're using and collecting it, fossil fuels will become scarce in no time. We also over exploit the resources we have available to us until it is gone, completely destroying the balance of the ecosystem it was in. Humans turn greedy when it comes to resources and we don't think twice about how we're harming other species or ecosystems. However, just because humans tear down environments for their use doesn't instantly mean death to all the animal living there but it certainly puts wild animals in a dangerous spot. By claiming land and using it to build buildings, the habitats wild animals live in become fragmented and humans force animals to migrate and find a new habitat. However, most animals end up not finding their way to a new home. This leads to all types of animal endangerment and possibly extinction. We take away resources in ecosystems and leave none for the plants, animals or any organism that they start to die off as well. An example of this is the Amazon Rainforest. We think that there's such an abundance of it we can just take it down like there's an unlimited supply. We kill off entire populations of wild animals so easily when we do things without thinking about what was living there, what it's going to do in the long run and if we can give back in another way. One day, humans will eradicate Earth's resources, it is inevitable.
Many of us think we're helping the Earth. We think that we're doing enough to help but what do we, the ones with the ability to help the environment, know? For example, not many of us know that FOREST FIRES can actually be extremely beneficial for forests. It kills off pests in the trees, clear off dead wood, adds nutrients, allow fire-resistant trees to grow and many species of trees rely on fire to crack its seeds and reproduce. Safety is prioritized first and anything dangerous to humans are stopped. Some of us don't know that suppressing forest fires is bad because forest fires are going to happen no matter what. Stopping them will only mean a bigger forest fire sooner or later, causing more damage to us and the environment. Another thing that puts the animals in danger are traditions or intents of us humans to gather an animal's certain part (such a killing a rare rhinos and elephants for their tusks and horn) or simply to get rid of them for our society's own use. Entire species are being killed off just for certain body parts and once a species is gone, it is gone forever. Also, the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico killed many animals and those that are left had a hard time surviving and some even had deformities. Another thing is due to easy transportation, we introduce invasive species that endanger the wild animals that live in our environment. This also puts many species at risk.

To successfully help our own planet, our first step is for us to become educated.
Abiotic factors are non-living things. Biotic factors are living thing.
BP Oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico
A rare rhino being guarded by men with guns.
Genetically-modified plants reduce the different wild species to suit our needs.
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