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Leonhard Euler

The Ultimate Mathematician

Qingyao Li

on 3 December 2014

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Transcript of Leonhard Euler

Euler died 1707-1783 Leonhard Euler Euler's life The Ultimate Mathematician http://www.maths.tcd.ie/pub/HistMath/People/Euler/RouseBall/RB_Euler.html http://mathsforeurope.digibel.be/Euler.html#2.Euler's number e. http://scienceworld.wolfram.com/biography/Euler.html http://www.pdmi.ras.ru/EIMI/EulerBio.html Euler was born in Switzerland
on April 15th 1707 https://thescienceclassroom.wikispaces.com/Leonhard+Euler biography Euler's contribution to mathematics f(x) e Mathematical Notation 1727 1733 1741 1748 1755 1766 1773 1776 1783 The Euler-Mascheroni constant recurring in analysis and number theory. Euler defined the exponential function for complex numbers and its relation to trigonometric functions. This led to the formation of Euler's Identity French Academy Prize called "the most remarkable formula in mathematics"! Accomplishments appointed to Russia Euler was known for his memory and concentration and would do most of his work while having his children run around constantly Euler was made the Head of Maths department Married His First Wife Left for Berlin When becoming blind in both eyes he relied on his mental capacity to be able to work out difficult computations in his head "Insitutiones Caluli Differentials" "Introduction In Analysis Infinitorum" Returned to Russia Forced to leave Berlin His wife died after their 40-years marriage Re-married his half-sister =-1
A publication backlog is reported to have lasted 47 years after his death. [upon losing the use of his right eye] "Now I will have less distraction" The Seven Bridges of Königsberg Leonhard Euler Lost sight in right eye http://eulerarchive.maa.org/portraits/portraits.html





http://history.mcs.st:ans.ac.uk References: Began to lose sight in his left eye Crc Concise Encyclopedia of mathematics Gained fame in the maths world asked Bernoulli for help on Mathematics 1726 analysis of the optimum placement of masts on a ship published mathematical papers of high quality St. Petersburg Academy appointed to medicine and physiology department solving significant problems from diverse mathematical areas including:
geometry, number theory, combinatorics
applied areas such as mechanics, hydrodynamics, and optics 1720 1723 University of Basel Master of Philosophy It's remarkably uplifting to imagine a man slipping into blindness yet explaning to the world the mysteries of optical light took a position in the Berlin Academy The German king called him a "mathematical cyclops" because of his vision problems. 1771 Almost totally blind and in some pain, Euler continued his mathematical writings unabated. Just as deafness proved no obstacle to Beethoven a generation later, so blindness did not reduce the flow of mathematics from Leonhard Euler! He spent his last day playing with his grandchildren and discussing the latest theories about the panet Uranus.
He was described as a kind and generous man, who enjoyed the simple pleasures of growing vegetables and telling stories to his brood of 13 children In this regard, Euler presents a welcome contrast to the secretive Isaac Newton, one of his very few mathematical peers. It is comforting to know that genius of this order does not necessarily bring with it a neurotic personality! 6 e u l E R V- +F=2 E e l e i = cos( ) + i sin( ) u u In 1775 Euler wrote roughly one mathematical paper per week He produced 73 volumes of collected papers in phenomenal
capacity Huge production "Read Euler, read Euler, he is the master of us all."
--Robin Wilson first 100 prime numbers all of their squares their cubes their fourth powers
their fifth powers
their sixth powers do difficult calculations mentally, some of these requiring him to retain in his head up to 50 places of accuracy! a vast collection of memorized facts, orations, and poems. He memorized as a boy and still could recite flawlessly half a century later. 241 337 4 6 Opera Omnia It has been computed that his publications during his working life averaged about 800 pages a year. discoveries of earlier mathematicians, organized and cleaned up the proofs compared to Euclid's Elements In all of his texts, Euler's exposition was quite lucid.
Euler was not the stereotypical mathematician who sees deeply into the nature of his subject but finds it impossible to convey his ideas to others. On the contrary, he cared deeply about teaching. if one were to collect all publication since the mathematical sciences produced over the last three-quarters of the 18th century, roughly 1/3 of these were from the pen of Euler! Euler did not confine his work to pure mathematics. Rather, his topic also covered acoustics, engineering, mechanics, astronomy, optical devices such as telescopes and microscopes. Euler–Mascheroni constant Euler's identity Euler's formula u vertices V, edges E, and faces F of a polyhedron: Euler's theorem in geometry d 2 = ( - 2r) R R In geometry, Euler's theorem states that the distance d between the circumcentre and incentre of a triangle can be expressed as Basel problem Such treatment, along with the petty controversies and political in-fighting of the Academy
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